Essays On Personal Values And Job Performance


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Introduction


The personality of any individual shapes his/her behaviour; therefore, understanding the behaviour of a person within an organization or a workmate has to do with their personalities. One may wonder at different attributes of a person that contribute to their quietness, passiveness, aggressiveness or even quick to anger. It is to the best interest of our understanding to define the term personality. Personality is the way a person interacts or reacts to other people. These are the measurable traits that the person exhibits (Buss & Hawley, 2011). Research on personality revolves around identifying or rather labelling the enduring characteristics that make up an individual.

There are general characteristics that are common such as submissive, loyal, and timid (Saroglou, 2013). When an individual has exhibited these characteristics in a different situation, these are personal traits. Most of the research has paid attention to personality traits. This is because there has been a general believe that these traits have an influence in making career development decisions and employees’ selection. For example, if there are particular situations in which personalities influence on better performance at work, personality screen tests find application in picking up the rightful candidates for work.

There are efforts that which help in identifying personality traits that govern particular individual behaviours. This leads to generation of a list of traits that offer little practical guidance for decision makers in making crucial choices. While there is a correlation between personality and values, they are not entirely the same (Buss & Hawley, 2011). Values are rather particular in that they describe belief systems rather than behavioural patterns.

Some beliefs or values do not represent a vivid picture of the personality of an individual. Furthermore, people do not act in ways that are consistent with what they value (Reimann, 2008). Values, in general terms, represent enduring convictions, which specify the mode of conduct or end-state of existence. Values often involve judgement since they are subjective in nature and highlight an individual’s idea on what is right or wrong.

Each person has a hierarchy of values that lead to the formation of the value system. This system is only identifiable by the relative way in which we assign values such as freedom, obedience, honesty and equality. Evaluation in values depends on two attributes namely; content attribute and intensity attribute (Reimann, 2008). The former says that the mode of conduct or end-state of existence is crucial while the latter specifies how important the value is in terms of intensity. Values take a different dimension when compared to personality since they vary depending on the cultures.

There has been theoretical discussion on the role of values in human interactions and the social system that is abound in both social and psychological literature. In these discussions, value is individual preferences that are reflective of the socialization aspect. Depending on this argument, they may be useful in the description of human behaviour. Surprisingly, personality and differential psychologists are according little attention to values in their research.

It is only under motivational psychology where researchers have identified the role of values and motives in influencing behaviour (Tosi & Pilati, 2011). There seems to be a relationship between personality and values. Values are concepts, beliefs that transcend situations help in the evaluation of behaviour, or events and they are desirable end states.

However, there is a distinguishing feature such as the motivational content of each value. Values are a representation of human motivations or goals. The distinguishing factor between values from another is the motivation or rather the goal. Empirical studies have shown the existence of different types of values that are distinct or general. These values are; power, benevolence, conformity, security and stimulation. The attribution of each of these values constitutes the prioritization of a person.

On the other hand, there have been different conceptual approaches towards personality. For integrative purpose, the trait purpose is the most promising. This is different from the motivational purpose that drives an individual’s values. The trait approach has gained immense support with the growth of the five-factor model. Thus, forming an interrelationship between traits and values will contribute to an understanding of personality (Pozzebon, 2008).

Personality represents the unique traits of an individual, which is distinguishable making one person to differ from the other (Tosi & Pilati, 2011). There are, however, different broad classes of traits, which form the aspect of personality. These are somatic traits, which define the morphology of an individual, aptitudes, temperaments and motivational traits. This description of personality is vast and includes some values as the subset (Reimann, 2008). There are differences between personality and traits that lead to their separate conceptual treatment.

The first difference is that personality traits constitute the observed behavioural patterns while values form the general axis of judgement on the desirability of particular behaviours, events and personalities (Pozzebon, 2008). Secondly, the personality traits differ depending on how many characteristic feature individual exhibits while values vary depending on the degree of importance of different attributes towards goals in life. Finally, the personality traits describe the presumptions of what people desire despite the intended actions while values pertains the intended achievements (Saroglou, 2013).

There exists the theoretical links between values and personality. From a psychological point of view, a person character is a cluster of fixed traits. There are situations in which motivational traits parallel the goals of individual. The relationship that exists between values and traits is dependent on whether the patterns are an inference of certain behaviours. Values and traits can be covariant only if the latter find derivation from the behavioural patterns that aim at achieving growth needs (Pozzebon, 2008). Therefore, a person who has curiosity as a personal trait is likely to acquire the same as a value.

It can also be contrasting when values and traits are compensatory for particular traits. These traits have inference from particular behaviour patterns that specify deficiency need, for example, anxiety. Therefore, anyone who is anxious is likely to value security and disregard any unexpected challenges (Buss & Hawley, 2011). The pursuit of different values has its influence on the psychological and social consequences.

For instance, there are actions that dictate the conformity values such as politeness, which may be compatible with those that lead to expression of security values e.g. social order. On the other hand, the pursuit of achievement values may conflict with those of benevolence. Value types have a structure, which constitute an integrated system of priorities through dynamic relations that exist between them. Thus understanding the value-personality relationship is crucial in showing priority types that specify particular values.

The characteristic traits such as charming and outgoing constitute personality. Personality in organizational behaviour has its influence on the outcome of the work (Smilansky, 2009). Varieties of methods are available in the measuring personality such as the process used in hiring the right person for a job post. However, there are two general ways employed in measuring personality.

These are self-reports and observer-ratings; the former is the easiest to administer although it is prone to error since it is subjective while the latter employs independence where a person observes or surveys the personality of a different individual. The reports or survey are difficult to administer though have a high level of accuracy. Personality has its own determinants, which include age, environmental influence and heredity.

Debates have been all over regarding the influence of both genetics and environment on personality. They both play a crucial role, which cannot be overstated. Heredity factors have a major influence at conception and comprises of physical stature and gender. The reaffirmation of this is studies showing twins brought up in different environments, but displayed the same personalities. However, the differences observed between twins prove the role of environmental influence.

There are personality-measuring instruments deployed in understating individual’s personality. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is widely used in which participants scaling range from one to sixteen depending on most probable personality traits. These traits are further broken down to four dichotomies. The first constitute extroverts versus introverts, who have the tendency of being quiet and shy.

The second dichotomy constitutes of intuits and senses in which the former are practical while the latter utilize unconscious processes (Ajzen, 2005). The third constitutes of thinking and feeling where the former focuses on logic and reason while the latter uses emotions and values. The final dichotomy involves judging and perceiving. Judgers utilize order and structure while perceivers are not only spontaneous but also flexible.

While this measurement tool is insightful, it is not related whatsoever to job performance (Smilansky, 2009). The other measurement tool that finds application in assessing personality is the Big Five Model, which employs five fundamental dimensions that pertain human personalities. These factors are extroversion, conscientiousness, openness, experiences and emotional stability. This model has shown predictability of behaviour within an organization.

There are other traits, which find relevance in organizational behaviour. Core self-evaluation is the degree in which people tend to value or disvalue themselves. Maintaining positive self-evaluation contributes to better and higher job performance. Machiavellianism is a trait possessed by people who are emotionally distant and believe that the end justifies the mean.

They have a competitive desire to win and can be persuasive at certain situations in which there are minimal rules. Finally, Narcissism is a trait possessed by people who are ineffective in the job market. It defines the character of people who require excessive admiration and a huge sense of entitlement. There are personalities that are common in organizational behaviour. Self-monitoring maintains a high-level link to job performance. It is the ability to adjust certain behaviours in order to meet situational factors.

People who possess this trait are likely to show effective leadership. Risk taking is a trait that shows the willingness of an individual to take up some chances. In an organization, it influences the time and information the leaders need to make particular decisions. Proactive personality is a possession by people who see an opportunity and seizes it for its values. They are ready to persevere in order to reap their benefits or goals.

Personality and its influence in organizational behaviour are not limiting. Values or enduring convictions of a person has its influence on organizational behaviour. Value systems are priorities that show the importance of a value and intensity in an individual’s feelings towards the same (French, 2011). The way an individual set up particular values in the hierarchy of importance is stable, and the result is motivation, behaviour or attitude.

In an organization, values are crucial since they have an immense impact on perception and objectivity of a person. Terminal values and instrumental values have been the subset of Rokeach Value Survey (Ajzen, 2005). The former describe the values a person would like to preserve throughout their lifetime while the latter are the preferred modes that provide a level playfield for achieving terminal values. Values tend to differ between groups and this forms a basis of confrontation unless there is the attainment of consensus. The study of personality and values plays a pivotal role in the field of organizational behaviour since they influence job performance outcomes. The personality of an employee needs to fit with the organizational culture.

When employees are able to locate organizations that match their values there are higher chances of selection. Correspondingly, this leads to a higher job satisfaction. There exist global implications of personality and values at workplace. Values differ greatly among different cultures. While the behaviour of an individual has a high relation to his/her personal traits, the values upheld help to predict the success of any organization (Smilansky, 2009).

Workplace constitutes of people from all backgrounds and thus human relations take the centre of any organization. Personality and attitude predict how an employee would respond to a crisis or conflict that is typical in such an environment. The inherent capability of understanding the personality and attitude determines the response to other people’s personalities. Personality can result from outside influences such as family, friends or any religious affiliations. Understanding oneself is a milestone achievement adjusting to workplace relationship (Smilansky, 2009). Personality has its dimensions such as energy, depth, direction and consciousness. Energy is a measure of intensity of personality, evidenced from observation and experience.

People who have a high personality are invariably energetic. Direction, on the other hand, is the motives or intentions, which can be either positive or negative by relating to the well-being of other people. Literally, values, on the other hand, are essential to a person. Vertical dimension as applied to human values help in expression of the three levels of consciousness. This leads to mental values, vital values and physical values.

MARS model of individual behaviour helps in describing the impact of values and personality on organizational outcome. Within an organization, there are certain factors that influence the employee’s motivation thus affecting the personality. These factors are direction, intensity and perceptions. On the other hand, there exist situations in which individuals share same values. The term used to describe this aspect is value congruence. This leads to incompatibility in decision-making and low levels of satisfaction. Values may span from individualism to collectivism.

Collectivism is the value duty to a certain group while individualism, the values are unique (Tosi & Pilati, 2011). Individualism may represent a situation in which people value personal freedom, self-sufficiency and appreciation from others (Singh, 2013). There are values that find a relation with adjustment to the environment, people’s behaviour or events. For instance, the well-being of a person is a relation between personal health and the adjustment to the environment.

Research on personality and values has taken new and different dimension with the emergency of Big Five personality. Personality traits and values at the individual level would be cross-situational or cross-temporarily consistent, and thus, convergence will be a general factor. Thus, there is a high expectation for conscientiousness to correlate with the values of conformity and conservatism.

The advances in the study of personality and values have provided a clarification on their foundations, measurement and structure. Evidenced accumulated from vast studies show that personality traits are endogenous while values are learned adaptation that have sound derivation from the environment (French, 2011). These constructs have explained what nature and nature mean together with their interactions.

Although there is the uniqueness or personal values and traits, the effort sought at integrating the two is limited. Different disciplines have researched the meaning of value and personality. Although they are similar conceptually, the two follow different streams with little or no effort to connect the two either theoretically or empirically. This has led to the emergence of different theories and models for both traits and values and vast understanding of the foundations of each (Singh, 2013). Although related personality and values are distinct in different ways, therefore, understanding the description and distinction between the two helps in drawing a thin line to distinguish the two. There has been empirical and conceptual development of the two primarily at the work place.

Personality changes over time depending on the parenting style, life experiences and the early childhood upbringing. People tend to become more socially dominant when they attain the ages of between 20 and 40. The behaviour in organization depends mainly on the personality. At the workplace, there is a predominant role of the employee and this role refers to adherence to good values.

Personality and good values find an application in employee testing and selection. In organizations, companies assess the candidate’s personality. Personality testing helps in predicting employee’s performance on a given task. Values accumulate throughout a person’s life and are relatively stable. Researchers have developed frameworks of values, and this includes the ten values. Value attainment forms the primary reason why people tend to stay in an organization.

The values of a firm are displayed in the mission and vision statements. Personality and value are two varying dimensions through which people differ. Personality is unique and traits such as self-esteem, social monitoring and proactive personality are significant in determining the behaviours of a person. Personality has a tremendous influence on job attitudes but little effect on the performance. Values express the life goals of a person (Ajzen, 2005).

These are similar to personal traits but relatively stable over the duration of time. In an organization, a person is likely to accept a job that provides value attainment. The behaviour of a person has a foundation on the personality and values but also the situation. Personal values are learned beliefs, which act as the guiding principles in life. Values are cognitive representation of universal requirements in life (Singh, 2013).

References

Ajzen, I. (2005). Attitudes, personality, and behavior. Maidenhead, Berkshire: Open University Press.
Buss, D. M., & Hawley, P. H. (2011). The evolution of personality and individual differences. New York: Oxford University Press.
French, R. (2011). Organizational behaviour. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.
Pozzebon, J. (2008). Personality traits and personal values: An investigation into the importance of each in the prediction of behaviour. Ottawa: Library and Archives Canada = Bibliothèque et Archives Canada.
Reimann, B. P. (2008). Personality and social psychology research. New York: Nova Biomedical Books.
Saroglou, V. (2013). Religion, personality, and social behavior. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis.
Singh, A. (2013). Managing emotion in design innovation. Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis.
Smilansky, S. (2009). Experiential marketing: A practical guide to interactive brand experiences. London: Kogan Page.
Tosi, H. L., & Pilati, M. (2011). Managing organizational behavior: Individuals, teams, organization and management. Cheltenham, U.K: Edward Elgar.

Abstract

Background

Organizational culture refers to the beliefs and values that have existed in an organization for a long time, and to the beliefs of the staff and the foreseen value of their work that will influence their attitudes and behavior. Administrators usually adjust their leadership behavior to accomplish the mission of the organization, and this could influence the employees' job satisfaction. It is therefore essential to understand the relationship between organizational culture, leadership behavior and job satisfaction of employees.

Methods

A cross-sectional study was undertaken that focused on hospital nurses in Taiwan. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire; 300 questionnaires were distributed and 200 valid questionnaires were returned. To test the reliability of the data, they were analyzed by Cronbach's α and confirmatory factors. Correlation analysis was used on the relationships between organizational cultures, leadership behavior and job satisfaction.

Results

Organizational cultures were significantly (positively) correlated with leadership behavior and job satisfaction, and leadership behavior was significantly (positively) correlated with job satisfaction.

Conclusions

The culture within an organization is very important, playing a large role in whether it is a happy and healthy environment in which to work. In communicating and promoting the organizational ethos to employees, their acknowledgement and acceptance of it can influence their work behavior and attitudes. When the interaction between the leadership and employees is good, the latter will make a greater contribution to team communication and collaboration, and will also be encouraged to accomplish the mission and objectives assigned by the organization, thereby enhancing job satisfaction.

Background

Organizational culture is described by Robbins & Coulter [1] as the shared values, beliefs, or perceptions held by employees within an organization or organizational unit. Because organizational culture reflects the values, beliefs and behavioral norms that are used by employees in an organization to give meaning to the situations that they encounter, it can influence the attitudes and behavior of the staff [2]. Understanding the organization's core values can prevent possible internal conflict [3], which is the main reason for our research into these cultural issues.

In other management fields, empirical research of organizational culture has involved the functionalist perspective, providing impressive evidence of the role of organizational culture in improving performance [4]. The pervasiveness of an organizational culture requires that management recognize its underpinning dimensions and its impact on employee-related variables, such as job satisfaction [5], organizational commitment [6], and performance [7]. Lund [5] believed that less research was done on the relationship between organizational culture and job satisfaction within the research topic of organizational culture and outcome. The organization consists of the staff, with the behavior of its individual members affecting outcomes. Since cultural research within the nursing field is not common [8], it is necessary to explore the way the culture influences the behavior of the nursing staff, and in turn how the behavior of the staff influences the organizational outcome.

A two-dimensional model of leadership that focuses on the concern for people and production has been used for many years in organizational research [9]. In the late 1970s, leadership research started focusing on behavior within organizational change and development [10]. Leadership implies authority in the broadest sense of the word and not simply the power to wield the stick [11]. It is based on objective factors, such as managerial ability, and more subjective characteristics that include personal qualities of the leaders. The factors are of even greater importance given the current emerging culture of the nurse who has a clear and assertive vision about the nature of clinical practice [12].

Currently, there is a shortage of nurses in clinical care, and good leaders can help any attrition. Furthermore, the leadership skills of nurse administrators can contribute to the success of their organization [13]. Leadership is of increasing importance in clinical nursing [14]. Although leadership and organizational culture constructs have been well studied, the relationship between them has not been established in the field of nursing [6]. This study explores the relationship between organizational culture and leadership behavior.

Berson & Linton [15] discovered that within the research & development (R&D) and administrative environments, leadership behavior of a manager is closely related to work satisfaction of the employees. Nielsen et al. [16] have stated that leadership behavior and job satisfaction will depend on the organizational context; therefore another objective of this research was to understand how the leadership behavior of the administrator in different organizational cultures affects job satisfaction. Casida & Pinto-Zipp [17] explored how nurses felt about the relationship between leadership and organizational culture, and found them to be correlated. Although the data indicated that the development of an organizational culture is related to the behavior of its leaders, the results failed conclude whether this affected their attitudes or behavior as employees. From the nursing administration perspective, the normal course of action taken to influence employee behavior and achieve the objectives set by the administrators comes through administrative management. Therefore, as well as discussing the relationship between leadership behavior and organizational culture, this research will investigate the effect of leader behavior and organizational culture towards employee job satisfaction. The findings clearly show that hospital administrators should be concerned about the effects of leadership behavior and organizational culture on the attitude towards work of their employees. This should help administrators alter their behavior in order to maintain a good mutual relationship with their subordinates, improving their working attitude and, more importantly, reducing potential conflicts.

Relationship between organizational culture and leadership behavior

Culture is socially learned and transmitted by members; it provides the rules for behavior within organizations [18]. The definition of organizational culture is of the belief that can guide staff in knowing what to do and what not to do, including practices, values, and assumptions about their work [19]. The core values of an organization begin with its leadership, which will then evolve to a leadership style. Subordinates will be led by these values and the behavior of leaders, such that the behavior of both parties should become increasingly in line. When strong unified behavior, values and beliefs have been developed, a strong organizational culture emerges. Leaders have to appreciate their function in maintaining an organization's culture. This would in return ensure consistent behavior between members of the organization, reducing conflicts and creating a healthy working environment for employees [20].

Hypothesis 1- Organizational culture is positively correlated with leadership behavior.

Relationship between leadership behavior and job satisfaction

Job satisfaction has been associated with nurses who perceive their managers as supportive and caring. A supportive manager shares values, believes in a balance of power, and provides opportunities for open dialogue with nurses [21], which in turn reduces the chances of internal conflicts. This type of leader is successful in his or her role and is supportive and responsive to clinical nurses, thereby preserving power and status within the hospital system. Such leaders are valued throughout the organization and have executive power to do what they see as necessary to create a positive environment for nursing [22]. Accordingly, they have a measurable effect on the morale and job satisfaction of nurses [23].

Hypothesis 2 - Leadership behavior is positively correlated with job satisfaction.

Relationship between organizational culture and job satisfaction

Organizational culture expresses shared assumptions, values and beliefs, and is the social glue holding an organization together [24]. A strong culture is a system of rules that spells out how people should behave [25]. An organization with a strong culture has common values and codes of conduct for its employees, which should help them accomplish their missions and goals. Work recognition and job satisfaction can be achieved when employees can complete the tasks assigned to them by the organization.

Hypothesis 3 -.Organizational culture is positively correlated with job satisfaction.

The measurement of organizational culture, leadership behavior and job satisfaction

A structured questionnaire was compiled based on similar studies published in international journals [26,27]. Twenty-three factors regarding organizational culture were taken from Tsui et al. [26], a study based on two groups of MBA students from two universities in Beijing, China. Our research was focused on clinical nurses in hospitals; therefore, refinements were made to the questionnaire designed by Tsui et al. [26] to cater for our particular research objective. The study invited three directors or supervisors from the medical center to validate the questionnaire. Lastly, there were 22 questions in the organizational culture section.

Thirty items regarding leadership behavior were taken from Strange & Mumford [27], and the questions structured using this literature. However, the proposed test was not empirically studied. Nurses from hospital A were used as a pilot study sample. Four question items were deleted to improve the validity of the questionnaire: "People will have an extreme reaction to the leader"; "Followers will sacrifice themselves for the leader and/or the leader's vision"; "The leader is motivated by the accomplishment of his vision"; and "The leader will take into account the needs of the organization in his decision making."

Vroom [28] classified job satisfaction into 7 dimensions: organizational, promotion, job content, superior, reward, working environment and working partners. We took into consideration that nurses' salary increases are based on promotion. Furthermore, a large number of variables in organization culture and leadership behavior were covered by this research. To prevent too few number nurses from responding to the questionnaires, we asked only 4 job satisfaction dimensions out of a total of 12 items: job recognition, reward and welfare, superior and working partners.

Methods

Study Design

A cross-sectional study was conducted in two hospitals in Central Taiwan.

Data Source and Analysis

We employed self-administered questionnaires to collect research data. Data was collected between October 1 and November 30, 2008. We selected 2 hospitals as our sample target and appointed a designated person at each to issue questionnaires to employees. The number of questionnaires issued depended on the designated person. The questionnaires were completed voluntarily by all respondents. During the research period, there were 325 nurses in hospital A; 100 questionnaires were distributed, and 57 valid questionnaires were returned. In hospital B there were a total of 572 nurses; 200 questionnaires were distributed, and 143 valid questionnaires were returned (total return rate 66.7%).

Of the subjects, 99.5% were female, 83.5% single or never married, 35.5% had a tenure at the hospital of 1-2 years, and 45.0% had had a college-level education. The majority of employees at the hospitals were general nurses (89.5%), and the average age was between 21 and 30 years (82.5%)(see Table ​1).

All data were analyzed using the SPSS 17.0 software package. Cronbach's α coefficient was used to assessed the internal consistency reliability of scales. To explore the factor construct of scale, a series of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) were employed. Correlation analysis was used to test for the relationships among subscales of organizational culture, leadership behavior and job satisfaction scale. Finally, a series of regression analysis were used to identify the proposed hypotheses. For H1 and H3, two sets of simple linear regression were used to assess the association between independent variable and dependent variable. For H2, hierarchical regression analysis was used to assess the independent association between leadership behavior and job satisfaction after controlling for the effect of organizational culture. Partial R2 R2), F test and standardized regression coefficient (β) and their test statistics (t value) were reported in all regression analysis.

Measurement

Given the latent character of the variables considered in the study, we used multi-item, 5-point Likert-type scales (1='strongly disagree' and 5='strongly agree'). After reliability analysis, the Cronbach's α of the organizational culture scale was 0.958 (22 items). The Cronbach's α of the leadership behavior scale was 0.966 (26 items), and for job satisfaction 0.855 (12 items).

The questionnaires used exploratory factor analysis. We extracted 4 factors from the organizational culture via principal component analysis, used the Varimax of the rotation method, and named them: employee orientation, customer focus, emphasizing responsibility, and emphasizing cooperation. We extracted 4 factors from leadership behavior and named them: leader's encouragement and supportiveness to subordinates, leader giving subordinates a clear vision and trust, leader's behavior is consistent with organization's vision, and leader is persuasive in convincing subordinates to acknowledge the vision. We extracted factors for job satisfaction and called them: working partners, rewards and welfare, superior and job recognition.

Results

Descriptive statistics

The average score for organizational culture was between 3.73 and 3.19, but the highest score was 3.73: "satisfying the need of customers at the largest scale." The second highest score was 3.68: "the profit of the customer is emphasized extremely." The lowest score was 3.19: "concern for the individual development of employees" (see Table ​2).

Table 2

Mean and Standard Division and the Factor Analysis of Organizational Culture, Leadership Behavior and Job Satisfaction

The average score for leadership behavior was between 3.77 and 3.42, where 2 items scored the highest score at 3.77: "the leader will act accordingly with a certain 'vision' that specifies a better future state", and "the leader will behaviorally role model the values implied by the vision by personal example". The second highest score was 3.69: "the leader will use positive rewards and reinforcement with his followers." The lowest score was 3.42: "the leader will try to persuade those who disagree with his vision to agree with it" (see Table ​2).

The average score for job satisfaction was between 3.84 and 2.56, where the highest score was 3.84: "to certain people my work is extremely important." The second highest score was "I am satisfied with how colleagues communicate with each other in the office." The lowest score was 2.56: "I am satisfied with my salary as I have less workload compared to other employees in other divisions" (see Table ​2).

Inferential statistical analysis

In relation to the 4 dimensions of organizational culture (employee orientation, customer focus, emphasizing responsibility, and emphasizing cooperation), the 4 dimensions of leadership behavior (leader's encouragement and support to subordinates, leader giving subordinates her/his clear vision, leader's behavior is consistent with the her/his vision and leader is persuasive in convincing subordinates to acknowledge the her/his vision), and the 4 dimensions of job satisfaction (working partners, rewards and welfare, superior and job recognition), variable analysis was carried out. The results of the analysis showed that only 2 dimensions from "leader giving subordinates her/his clear vision" and "behavior consistent with her/his vision" and "reward and welfare" under the job satisfaction were not significantly correlated, whereas the other dimensions showed significant correlation. The results also showed that organizational culture, leadership behavior and job satisfaction were positively associated with hypotheses one to three, which were supported (see Table ​3).

Table 3

Correlation Analysis among Organizational Culture, Leadership Behavior and Job Satisfaction

Table ​4 presents the results of several regression analyses. H1 was supported, as organizational culture was positively associated with leadership behavior (β = .55, p < .001). H3 was also supported as organizational culture was positively related to job satisfaction (β = .66, p < .001). Finally, H2 was supported as the partial regression coefficient of leadership behavior reached statistically significant (β = .33, p < .001) after controlling the effect of organizational culture. The unique variance explained attributable to leadership behavior was 8% (ΔF = 30.58, p<.001) independent of organizational culture (see Table ​4). The association among there three main variables was illustrated as Figure ​1.

Table 4

The Linear Regression of Organizational Culture, Leadership Behavior and Job Satisfaction

Figure 1

The association between organizational culture, leadership behavior and job satisfaction. (The values shown were standardized regression coefficient and value in parenthesis was partially standardized regression coefficient)

Discussion

Casida & Pinto-Zipp [17] studied nurses in determining the relationship between different leadership styles and organizational cultures, and showed a correlation between leadership and organizational culture, consistent with the findings of our research. However, by adopting regression analysis, we also found that leadership behavior impacts on organizational culture.

Laschinger et al. [29] proposed that the variables strongly correlated with job satisfaction included role conflict, head nurse leadership, supervisory relationships, autonomy, and stress. Mayo [30] argued that the key determinant of job satisfaction was group interaction, and highlighted the importance of good leadership and satisfying personal relations in the workplace. Management and leadership behavior at the hospital affected nurses' job satisfaction [31]. The research also discovered that leadership behavior will also influence employee job satisfaction. As well as the above-described individual factors, the research also showed that factors at the organization level, such as the organizational culture, also have an effect on job satisfaction. This result is consistent with the results of Gifford et al. [32]. It is recommended that it is also important for hospital administrators to establish a good organizational infrastructure in addition to improving the working environment in order to increase employee job satisfaction.

Decisions about patient care are often made by a team, rather than by a single individual [33]. To maintain open communication and better coordination, as well as avoiding possible conflicts, one must rely on the role of leaders to motivate the team to achieve the organization goal. It was found that encouragement and support by leaders, their trust and clear vision, their consistent behavior in this regard and their ability to convince subordinates to acknowledge their vision, can all influence employee job satisfaction. On the other hand, we found that the factors in achieving job satisfaction were not limited to the employee's working environment, but also included interactions between working partners. Good health care requires good team behavior, so it is also recommended that hospital administrators not only establish relationships within the health care teams, but also work to improve these relationships to increase employee job satisfaction.

Academics who study organizational culture as their research topic feel that organizational culture is complex. It will influence different employee attitudes and behavior [34]; for example Jacobs & Roodt [35] discovered a correlation between employee turnover intentions, knowledge sharing organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behavior, job satisfaction and organizational culture. Other academics have found that organizational culture is also related to organization or employee efficiency. Good examples are an organization's innovative ability [36], employee effectiveness (e.g. higher levels of goal orientation, self control) [37]. Kane-Urrabazo [20] believed that a satisfactory work environment can be created by the employees when an organisation possesses a healthy culture and thus has a positive attitude towards employee work. Therefore the relationship between organisational culture and employee behaviour/attitude has been emphasised by different academics from various fields [26]. Jacobs & Roodt [35] showed a positive correlation between organisational culture and employee job satisfaction that is consistent with the findings of our research.

Research limitations and future research

Since a wide range of variables were included in our study, only a limited number of clinical nurses were interested in participating. Furthermore, only 2 hospitals were involved in this research; therefore, it is proposed that in view of the response rate, future research should consider adjusting the research variables.

Organizations face challenges in the external environment and changing internal context, and leaders will alter their behavior to adapt to these environment changes. Therefore it is proposed that longitudinal research methods can be adopted in future investigations into how changes in organizational context impact on leadership behavior. Will these changes create a brand new organization culture? And how will these changes in leadership behavior influence employee behavior and their contribution to the organization?

Administrators usually adjust their leadership behavior in order to reach the organizational goal. It is proposed that future research can explore the type of leadership behavior that will shape a particular culture within an organization. Thus, administrators can achieve the objective of shaping a new organization culture by adopting different leadership behavior training programs.

Conclusion

Culture within an organization is very important, playing a large role in whether or not the organization is a happy and healthy place to work [20]. Through communicating and promoting the organizational vision to subordinates, and in getting their acknowledgement of the vision, it is possible to influence their work behavior and attitudes. When there is good interaction between the leader and subordinates, there will be contributions to team communication and collaboration, and encouragement of subordinates to accomplish the mission and objectives assigned by the organization, which in turn enhances job satisfaction.

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