maintains relations with other states and international organizations;
represents and protects the interests of the Republic of Poland, Polish citizens and legal entities abroad;
promotes Poland and the Polish language abroad;
cooperates with Poles living abroad and supports Polish cultural and educational institutions abroad;
organizes and supervises the activities of Poland’s diplomatic missions and consulates;
proposes and develops the policies of the Council of Ministers in the field of foreign affairs; elaborates projects and drafts proposals for such policies and submits them to the Council of Ministers;
implements policies adopted by the Council of Ministers and coordinates and supervises their implementation through the relevant agencies;
fulfills the above tasks and responsibilities in cooperation with other ministers, national and local government bodies, the business community, trade unions and social organizations;
represents the Republic of Poland in international human rights protection bodies;
provides guidelines and supervision to the Polish Institute of International Affairs in Warsaw and the Institute for Western Affairs in Poznan as well as to diplomatic missions, consular offices and Polish Institutes abroad.
Responsibilities and competences of the Minister of Foreign Affairs
1. Pursuant to the regulation of the President of the Council of Ministers of 22 December 2009 concerning the detailed scope of activities conducted by the Minister of Foreign Affairs, the Minister of Foreign Affairs:
directs the government administration branches Foreign affairs and Poland’s membership of the European Union and
administers Section 45 of the national budget.
2. Pursuant to the Government Administration Branches Act of 4 September 1997:
1) In relation to foreign affairs, the Minister of Foreign Affairs:
maintains the Republic of Poland’s relations with other states and international organizations;
represents and protects the Republic of Poland’s interests abroad, including before international courts and tribunals with the exception of the judicial bodies of the European Union and the Court of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA Court);
coordinates the foreign policy of the Republic of Poland, including activities of government administration bodies and their subordinate units by:
a) developing, agreeing and submitting for examination to the Council of Ministers, on an annual basis, the government document defining the directions and objectives of Polish foreign policy and the promotion of Poland’s interests for the following year as well as developing and submitting long-term foreign policy strategies to the Council of Ministers;
b) providing opinions on the consistency of annual and long-term international cooperation plans with the above document and submitting opinions on these plans to the President of the Council of Ministers;
c) acting in international relations essential from the point of view of the interests of the Republic of Poland:
representing and protecting the interests of Polish nationals and Polish legal persons abroad as well as cooperating with Poles residing abroad, including giving his support to Polish cultural and educational institutions abroad;
dealing with matters in the field of international cooperation for development and humanitarian aid;
presenting the international image of the Republic of Poland;
dealing with matters in the field of public and cultural diplomacy as well as supporting efforts promoting the Polish economy, culture, language, tourism, technology and science undertaken in the scope of other activities;
presenting the report on Polish foreign policy tasks to the Sejm (lower chamber of Parliament) of the Republic of Poland;
determining the organization of foreign diplomatic missions of the Republic of Poland, directing their activities and coordinating activities associated with their protection.
2) In relation to Poland’s membership of the European Union:
in the scope of government involvement in the work of the institutions of the European Union, the Foreign Minister develops Poland’s EU policy strategy, initiates and prepares government documents on involvement in EU institutions and gives opinions in terms of their consistency with the strategy;
in the scope of information and education measures, the Foreign Minister disseminates knowledge about European integration and the functioning of the EU as well as the related policies of the Council of Ministers;
in the scope of the consistency of Polish law with EU law and the protection of the interests of the Republic of Poland in proceedings before the judicial bodies of the European Union and the Court of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA Court), the Foreign Minister acts by:
a) coordinating the process of transposition of the acquis communautaire into the Polish legal regime;
b) presenting opinions to the Council of Ministers on the consistency of government bills and draft versions of international agreements with EU law;
c) subject to the regulations of the Sejm, giving opinions on the consistency of draft bills with EU law;
d) subject to separate regulations, assuring representation of the Republic of Poland in proceedings before the judicial bodies of the European Union and the Court of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA Court):
preparing government administration bodies to perform tasks arising from Poland’s membership of the European Union;
employing Polish nationals in EU institutions and agencies.
3. Pursuant to the Council of Ministers Act of 8 August 1996, the Minister of Foreign Affairs:
participates – pursuant to the Constitution – in the establishment of Polish national policies and assumes responsibility for the content and implementation of government tasks, in line with separate regulations;
initiates and develops government policy in the scope of his competences, submits initiatives, presents the assumptions underlying draft bills and draft regulatory acts at meetings of the Council of Ministers, subject to separate regulations;
implements policies of the Council of Ministers;
represents the government before the Sejm of the Republic of Poland in selected matters, pursuant to applicable laws;
participates in meetings of the Council of Ministers;
directs, oversees and controls the activity of subordinate bodies, offices and units;
presents matters pertaining to measures taken by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs at meetings of the Council of Ministers.
We, the Nations, Nationalities and Peoples of Ethiopia:
Strongly committed, in full and free exercise of our right to self-determination, to building a political community founded on the rule of law and capable of ensuring a lasting peace, guaranteeing a democratic order, and advancing our economic and social development;
Firmly convinced that the fulfillment of this objective requires full respect of individual and people’s fundamental freedoms and rights, to live together on the basis of equality and without any sexual, religious or cultural discrimination;
Further convinced that by continuing to live with our rich and proud cultural legacies in territories we have long inhabited, have, through continuous interaction on various levels and forms of life, built up common interest and have also contributed to the emergence of a common outlook;
Fully cognizant that our common destiny can best be served by rectifying historically unjust relationships and by further promoting our shared interests;
Convinced that to live as one economic community is necessary in order to create sustainable and mutually supportive conditions for ensuring respect for our rights and freedoms and for the collective promotion of our interests;
Determined to consolidate, as a lasting legacy, the peace and the prospect of a democratic order which our struggles and sacrifices have brought about;
Have therefore adopted, on 8 December 1994 this constitution through representatives we have duly elected for this purpose as an instrument that binds us in a mutual commitment to fulfil the objectives and the principles set forth above.
Nomenclature of the State
This Constitution establishes a Federal and Democratic State structure. Accordingly, the Ethiopian state shall be known as the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia.
Ethiopian Territorial Jurisdiction
The territorial jurisdiction of Ethiopia shall comprise the territory of the members of the Federation and its boundaries shall be as determined by international agreements.
The Ethiopian Flag
- The Ethiopian flag shall consist of green at the top, yellow in the middle and red at the bottom, and shall have a national emblem at the center. The three colors shall be set horizontally in equal dimension.
- The national emblem on the flag shall reflect the hope of the Nations, Nationalities, Peoples as well as religious communities of Ethiopia to live together in equality and unity.
- Members of the Federation may have their respective flags and emblems and shall determine the details thereof through their respective legislatures.
National Anthem of Ethiopia
The national anthem of Ethiopia, to be determined by law, shall reflect the ideals of the Constitution, the Commitment of the Peoples of Ethiopia to live together in a democratic order and of their common destiny.
- All Ethiopian languages shall enjoy equal state recognition.
- Amharic shall be the working language of the Federal Government.
- Members of the Federation may by law determine their respective working languages.
- Any person of either sex shall be an Ethiopian national where both or either parent is Ethiopian.
- Foreign nationals may acquire Ethiopian nationality.
- Particulars relating to nationality shall be determined by law.
Provisions of this Constitution set out in the masculine gender shall also apply to the feminine gender.
CHAPTER TWO FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF THE CONSTITUTION Article 8 Sovereignty of the people
- All sovereign power resides in the Nations, Nationalities and Peoples of Ethiopia.
- This Constitution is an expression of their sovereignty.
- Their sovereignty shall be expressed through their representatives elected in accordance with this Constitution and through their direct democratic participation
Article 9 Supremacy of the Constitution
- The Constitution is the supreme law of the land. Any law, customary practice or a decision of an organ of state or a public official which contravenes this Constitution shall be of no effect.
- All citizens, organs of state, political organizations, other associations as well as their officials have the duty to ensure observance of the Constitution and to obey it.
- It is prohibited to assume state power in any manner other than that provided under the Constitution.
- All international agreements ratified by Ethiopia are an integral part of the law of the land.
Article 10 Human and Democratic Rights
- Human rights and freedoms, emanating from the nature of mankind, are inviolable and inalienable.
- Human and democratic rights of citizens and peoples shall be respected.
Article 11 Separation of State and Religion
- State and religion are separate.
- There shall be no state religion.
- The state shall not interfere in religious matters and religion shall not interfere in state affairs.
Article 12 Conduct and Accountability of Government
- The conduct of affairs of government shall be transparent.
- Any public official or an elected representative is accountable for any failure in official duties.
- In case of loss of confidence, the people may recall an elected representative. The particulars of recall shall be determined by law.
FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS Article 13 Scope of Application and Interpretation
- All Federal and State legislative, executive and judicial organs at all levels shall have the responsibility and duty to respect and enforce the provisions of this Chapter.
- The fundamental rights and freedoms specified in this Chapter shall be interpreted in a manner conforming to the principles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, International Covenants on Human Rights and International instruments adopted by Ethiopia.
PART ONE HUMAN RIGHTS Article 14 Rights to life, the Security of Person and Liberty
Every person has the inviolable and inalienable right to life the security of person and liberty.
Article 15 Right to Life
Every person has the right to life. No person may be deprived of his life except as a punishment for a serious criminal offence determined by law.
Article 16 The Right of the Security of Person
Every one has the right to protection against bodily harm.
Right to Liberty
- No one shall be deprived of his or her liberty except on such grounds and in accordance with such procedure as are established by law.
- No person may be subjected to arbitrary arrest, and no person may be detained without a charge or conviction against him.
Prohibition against Inhuman Treatment
- Everyone has the right to protection against cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
- No one shall be held in slavery or servitude. Trafficking in human beings for whatever purpose is prohibited.
- No one shall be required to perform forced or compulsory labour.
- For the purpose of sub-Article 3 of this Article the phrase "forced or compulsory labour" shall not include:
- Any work or service normally required of a person who is under detention in consequence of a lawful order, or of a person during conditional release from such detention;
- In the case of conscientious objectors, any service exacted in lieu of compulsory military service;
- Any service exacted in cases of emergency or calamity threatening the life or well-being of the community;
- Any economic and social development activity voluntarily performed by a community within its locality.
Right of Persons Arrested
- Persons arrested have the right to be informed promptly, in a language they understand, of the reasons for their arrest and of any charge against them.
- Persons arrested have the right to remain silent. Upon arrest, they have the right to be informed promptly, in a language they understand, that any statement they make may be used as evidence against them in court.
- Persons arrested have the right to be brought before a court within 48 hours of their arrest. Such time shall not include the time reasonably required for the journey from the place of arrest to the court. On appearing before a court, they have the right to be given prompt and specific explanation of the reasons for their arrest due to the alleged crime committed.
- All persons have an inalienable right to petition the court to order their physical release where the arresting police officer or the law enforcer fails to bring them before a court within the prescribed time and to provide reasons for their arrest. Where the interest of justice requires, the court may order the arrested person to remain in custody or, when requested remand him for a time strictly required to carry out the necessary investigation. In determining the
- additional time necessary for investigation, the court shall ensure that the responsible law enforcement authorities carry out the investigation respecting the arrested person’s right to a speedy trial.
- Persons arrested shall not be compelled to make confessions or admissions which could be used in evidence against them. Any evidence obtained under coercion shall not be admissible.
- Persons arrested have the right to be released on bail. In exceptional circumstances prescribed by law, the court may deny bail or demand adequate guarantee for the conditional release of the arrested person.
Rights of Persons Accused
- Accused persons have the right to a public trial by an ordinary court of law within a reasonable time after having been charged. The court may hear cases in a closed session only with a view to protecting the right to privacy of the parties concerned, public morals and national security.
- Accused persons have the right to be informed with sufficient particulars of the charge brought against them and to be given the charge in writing.
- During proceedings accused persons have the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law and not to be compelled to testify against themselves.
- Accused persons have the right to full access to any evidence presented against them, to examine witnesses testifying against them, to adduce or to have evidence produced in their own defence, and to obtain the attendance of and examination of witnesses on their behalf before the court.
- Accused persons have the right to be represented by legal counsel of their choice, and, if they do not have sufficient means to pay for it and miscarriage of justice would result, to be provided with legal representation at state expense.
- All persons have the right of appeal to the competent court against an order or a judgment of the court which first heard the case.
- They have the right to request for the assistance of an interpreter at state expense where the court proceedings are conducted in a language they do not understand.
The Rights of Persons Held in Custody and Convicted Prisoners
- All persons held in custody and persons imprisoned upon conviction and sentencing have the right to treatments respecting their human dignity.
- All persons shall have the opportunity to communicate with, and to be visited by, their spouses or partners, close relatives, friends, religious councilors, medical doctors and their legal counsel.
Non-retroactivity of Criminal Law
- No one shall be held guilty of any criminal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a criminal offence at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed on any person than the one that was applicable at the time when the criminal offence was committed.
- Notwithstanding the provisions of sub-Article 1 of this Article, a law promulgated subsequent to the commission of the offence shall apply if it is advantageous to the accused or convicted person.
Prohibition of Double Jeopardy
No person shall be liable to be tried or punished again for an offense for which he has already been finally convicted or acquitted in accordance with the criminal law and procedure.
Right to Honour and Reputation
- Everyone has the right to respect for his human dignity, reputation and honour.
- Everyone has the right to the free development of his personality in a manner compatible with the rights of other citizens.
- Everyone has the right to recognition every where as a person.
Right to Equality
All persons are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to the equal protection of the law. In this respect, the law shall guarantee to all persons equal and effective protection without discrimination on grounds of race, nation, nationality, or other social origin, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, property, birth or other status.
Right to Privacy
- Everyone has the right to privacy. This right shall include the right not to be subjected to searches of his home, person or property, or the seizure of any property under his personal possession.
- Everyone has the right to the inviolability of his notes and correspondence including postal letters, and communications made by means of telephone, telecommunications and electronic devices.
- Public officials shall respect and protect these rights. No restrictions may be placed on the enjoyment of such rights except in compelling circumstances and in accordance with specific laws whose purposes shall be the safeguarding of national security or public peace, the prevention of crimes or the protection of health, public morality or the rights and freedoms of others.
Freedom of Religion, Belief and Opinion
- Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion. This right shall include the freedom to hold or to adopt a religion or belief of his choice, and the freedom, either individually or in community with others, and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in worship, observance, practice and teaching.
- Without prejudice to the provisions of sub-Article 2 of Article 90, believers may establish institutions of religious education and administration in order to propagate and organize their religion.
- No one shall be subject to coercion or other means which would restrict or prevent his freedom to hold a belief of his choice.
- Parents and legal guardians have the right to bring up their children ensuring their religious and moral education in conformity with their own convictions.
- Freedom to express or manifest one’s religion or belief may be subject only to such limitations as are prescribed by law and are necessary to protect public safety, peace, health, education, public morality or the fundamental rights and freedoms of others, and to ensure the independence of the state from religion.
Crimes Against Humanity
- Criminal liability of persons who commit crimes against humanity, so defined by international agreements ratified by Ethiopia and by other laws of Ethiopia, such as genocide, summary executions, forcible disappearances or torture shall not be barred by statute of limitation. Such offences may not be commuted by amnesty or pardon of the legislature or any other state organ.
- In the case of persons convicted of any crime stated in sub-Article 1 of this Article and sentenced with the death penalty, the Head of State may, without prejudice to the provisions here in above, commute the punishment to life imprisonment.
Right of Thought, Opinion and Expression
- Everyone has the right to hold opinions without interference.
- Everyone has the right to freedom of expression without any interference. This right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any media of his choice.
- Freedom of the press and other mass media and freedom of artistic creativity is guaranteed. Freedom of the press shall specifically include the following elements:
- Prohibition of any form of censorship.
- Access to information of public interest.
- In the interest of the free flow of information, ideas and opinions which are essential to the functioning of a democratic order, the press shall, as an institution, enjoy legal protection to ensure its operational independence and its capacity to entertain diverse opinions.
- Any media financed by or under the control of the State shall be operated in a manner ensuring its capacity to entertain diversity in the expression of opinion.
- These rights can be limited only through laws which are guided by the principle that freedom of expression and information cannot be limited on account of the content or effect of the point of view expressed. Legal limitations can be laid down in order to protect the well-being of the youth, and the honour and reputation of individuals. Any propaganda for war as well as the public expression of opinion intended to injure human dignity shall be prohibited by law.
- Any citizen who violates any legal limitations on the exercise of these rights may be held liable under the law.
The Right of Assembly, Demonstration and Petition
- Everyone has the right to assemble and to demonstrate together with others peaceably and unarmed, and to petition. Appropriate regulations may be made in the interest of public convenience relating to the location of open-air meetings and the route of movement of demonstrators or, for the protection of democratic rights, public morality and peace during such a meeting or demonstration.
- This right does not exempt from liability under laws enacted to protect the well-being of the youth or the honour and reputation of individuals, and laws prohibiting any propaganda for war and any public expression of opinions intended to injure human dignity.
Freedom of Association
Every person has the right to freedom of association for any cause or purpose. Organizations formed, in violation of appropriate laws, or to illegally subvert the constitutional order, or which promote such activities are prohibited.
Freedom of Movement
- Any Ethiopian or foreign national lawfully in Ethiopia has, within the national territory, the right to liberty of movement and freedom to choose his residence, as well as the freedom to leave the country at any time he wishes to.
- Any Ethiopian national has the right to return to his country.
Rights of Nationality
- No Ethiopian national shall be deprived of his or her Ethiopian nationality against his or her will. Marriage of an Ethiopian national of either sex to a foreign national shall not annul his or her Ethiopian nationality.
- Every Ethiopian national has the right to the enjoyment of all rights, protection and benefits derived from Ethiopian nationality as prescribed by law.
- Any national has the right to change his Ethiopian nationality.
- Ethiopian nationality may be conferred upon foreigners in accordance with law enacted and procedures established consistent with international agreements ratified by Ethiopia.
Marital, Personal and Family Rights
- Men and women, without any distinction as to race, nation, nationality or religion, who have attained marriageable age as defined by law, have the right to marry and found a family. They have equal rights while entering into, during marriage and at the time of divorce. Laws shall be enacted to ensure the protection of rights and interests of children at the time of divorce.
- Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses.
- The family is the natural and fundamental unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.
- In accordance with provisions to be specified by law, a law giving recognition to marriage concluded under systems of religious or customary laws may be enacted.
- This Constitution shall not preclude the adjudication of disputes relating to personal and family laws in accordance with religious or customary laws, with the consent of the parties to the dispute. Particulars shall be determined by law.
Rights of Women
- Women shall , in the enjoyment of rights and protections provided for by this Constitution, have equal right with men.
- Women have equal rights with men in marriage as prescribed by this Constitution.
- The historical legacy of inequality and discrimination suffered by women in Ethiopia taken into account, women, in order to remedy this legacy, are entitled to affirmative measures. The purpose of such measures shall be to provide special attention to women so as to enable them to compete and participate on the basis of equality with men in political, social and economic life as well as in public and private institutions.
- The State shall enforce the right of women to eliminate the influences of harmful customs. Laws, customs and practices that oppress or cause bodily or mental harm to women are prohibited.
- (a) Women have the right to maternity leave with full pay. The duration of maternity leave shall be determined by law taking into account the nature of the work, the health of the mother and the well-being of the child and family.
- (b) Maternity leave may, in accordance with the provisions of law, include prenatal leave with full pay.
- Women have the right to full consultation in the formulation of national development policies, the designing and execution of projects, and particularly in the case of projects affecting the interests of women.
- Women have the right to acquire, administer, control, use and transfer property. In particular, they have equal rights with men with respect to use, transfer, administration and control of land. They shall also enjoy equal treatment in the inheritance of property.
- Women shall have a right to equality in employment, promotion, pay, and the transfer of pension entitlements.
- To prevent harm arising from pregnancy and childbirth and in order to safeguard their health, women have the right of access to family planning education, information and capacity.
Rights of Children
1. Every child has the right:
- To life;
- To a name and nationality;
- To know and be cared for by his or her parents or legal guardians;
- Not to be subject to exploitative practices, neither to be required nor permitted to perform work which may be hazardous or harmful to his or her education, health or well-being;
- To be free of corporal punishment or cruel and inhumane treatment in schools and other institutions responble for the care of children.
- In all actions concerning children undertaken by public and private welfare institutions, courts of law, administrative authorities or legislative bodies, the primary consideration shall be the best interest of the child.
- Juvenile offenders admitted to corrective or rehabilitative institutions, and juveniles who become wards of the State or who are placed in public or private orphanages, shall be kept separately from adults.
- Children born out of wedlock shall have the same rights as children born of wedlock.
- The State shall accord special protection to orphans and shall encourage the establishment of institutions which ensure and promote their adoption and advance their welfare, and education.
Right of Access to Justice
- Everyone has the right to bring a justiciable matter to, and to obtain a decision or judgment by, a court of law or any other competent body with judicial power.
- The decision or judgment referred to under sub-Article 1 of this Article may also be sought by:
- Any association representing the Collective or individual interest of its members; or
- Any group or person who is a member of, or represents a group with similar interests.
The Right to Vote and to be Elected
1. Every Ethiopian national, without any discrimination based on colour, race, nation, nationality, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion or other status, has the following rights:
- To take part in the conduct of public affairs, directly and through freely chosen representatives;
- On the attainment of 18 years of age, to vote in accordance with law;
- To vote and to be elected at periodic elections to any office at any level of government; elections shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret ballot, guaranteeing the free expression of the will of the electors.
- The right of everyone to be a member of his own will in a political organization, labour union, trade organization, or employers’ or professional association shall be respected if he or she meets the special and general requirements stipulated by such organization.
- Elections to positions of responsibility with any of the organizations referred to under sub-Article 2 of this Article shall be conducted in a free and democratic manner.
- The provisions of sub-Articles 2 and 3 of this Article shall apply to civic organizations which significantly affect the public interest.
Rights of Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples
- Every Nation, Nationality and People in Ethiopia has an unconditional right to self-determination, including the right to secession.
- Every Nation, Nationality and People in Ethiopia has the right to speak, to write and to develop its own language; to express, to develop and to promote its culture; and to preserve its history.
- Every Nation, Nationality and People in Ethiopia has the right to a full measure of self-government which includes the right to establish institutions of government in the territory that it inhabits and to equitable representation in state and Federal governments.
- The right to self-determination, including secession, of every Nation,
Nationality and People shall come into effect:
- When a demand for secession has been approved by a two-thirds majority of the members of the Legislative Council of the Nation, Nationality or People concerned;
- When the Federal Government has organized a referendum which must take place within three years from the time it received the concerned council’s decision for secession;
- When the demand for secession is supported by majority vote in the referendum;
- When the Federal Government will have transferred its powers to the council of the Nation, Nationality or People who has voted to secede; and
- When the division of assets is effected in a manner prescribed by law.
- A "Nation, Nationality or People" for the purpose of this Constitution , is a group of people who have or share large measure of a common culture or similar customs, mutual intelligibility of language, belief in a common or related identities, a common psychological make-up, and who inhabit an identifiable, predominantly contiguous territory.
The Right to Property
- Every Ethiopian citizen has the right to the ownership of private property. Unless prescribed otherwise by law on account of public interest, this right shall include the right to acquire, to use and, in a manner compatible with the rights of other citizens, to dispose of such property by sale or bequest or to transfer it otherwise.
- "Private property", for the purpose of this Article, shall mean any tangible or intangible product which has value and is produced by the labour, creativity, enterprise or capital of an individual citizen, associations which enjoy juridical personality under the law, or in appropriate circumstances, by communities specifically empowered by law to own property in common.
- The right to ownership of rural and urban land, as well as of all natural resources, is exclusively vested in the State and in the peoples of Ethiopia. Land is a common property of the Nations, Nationalities and Peoples of Ethiopia and shall not be subject to sale or to other means of exchange.
- Ethiopian peasants have right to obtain land without payment and the protection against eviction from their possession. The implementation of this provision shall be specified by law.
- Ethiopian pastoralists have the right to free land for grazing and cultivation as well as the right not to be displaced from their own lands. The implementation shall be specified by law.
- Without prejudice to the right of Ethiopian Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples to the ownership of land, government shall ensure the right of private investors to the use of land on the basis of payment arrangements established by law. Particulars shall be determined by law.
- Every Ethiopian shall have the full right to the immovable property he builds and to the permanent improvements he brings about on the land by his labour
- or capital. This right shall include the right to alienate, to bequeath, and, where the right of use expires, to remove his property, transfer his title, or claim compensation for it. Particulars shall be determined by law.
- Without prejudice to the right to private property, the government may expropriate private property for public purposes subject to payment in advance of compensation commensurate to the value of the property.
Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
- Every Ethiopian has the right to engage freely in economic activity and to pursue a livelihood of his choice anywhere within the national territory.
- Every Ethiopian has the right to choose his or her means of livelihood, occupation and profession.
- Every Ethiopian national has the right to equal access to publicly funded social services.
- The State has the obligation to allocate an ever increasing resources to provide to the public health, education and other social services.
- The State shall, within available means, allocate resources to provide rehabilitation and assistance to the physically and mentally disabled, the aged , and to children who are left without parents or guardian.
- The State shall pursue policies which aim to expand job opportunities for the unemployed and the poor and shall accordingly undertake programmes and public works projects.
- The State shall undertake all measures necessary to increase opportunities for citizens to find gainful employment.
- Ethiopian farmers and pastoralists have the right to receive fair price for their products, that would lead to improvement in their conditions of life and to enable them to obtain an equitable share of the national wealth commensurate with their contribution. This objective shall guide the State in the formulation of economic, social and development policies.
- The State has the responsibility to protect and preserve historical and cultural legacies, and to contribute to the promotion of the arts and sports.
Rights of Labour
1. (a) Factory and service workers, farmers, farm labourers, other rural workers and government employees whose work compatibility allows for it and who are below a certain level of responsibility, have the right to form associations to improve their conditions of employment and economic well-being. This right includes the right to form trade unions and other associations to bargain collectively with employers or other organizations that affect their interests.(b) Categories of persons referred to in paragraph (c) of this sub-Article has the right to express grievances, including the right to strike.(c) Government employees who enjoy the rights provided under paragraphs (a) and (b) of this sub - Article shall be determined by law.
(d) Women workers have the right to equal pay for equal work.
- Workers have the right to reasonable limitation of working hours, to rest, to leisure, to periodic leaves with pay, to remuneration for public holidays as well as healthy and safe work environment.
- Without prejudice to the rights recognized under sub - Article 1 of this Article, laws enacted for the implementation of such rights shall establish procedures for the formation of trade unions and for the regulation of the collective bargaining process.
Article 43 The Right to Development
- The Peoples of Ethiopia as a whole, and each Nation, Nationality and People in Ethiopia in particular have the right to improved living standards and to sustainable development.
- Nationals have the right to participate in national development and, in particular, to be consulted with respect to policies and projects affecting their community.
- All international agreements and relations concluded, established or conducted by the State shall protect and ensure Ethiopia’s right to sustainable development.
- The basic aim of development activities shall be to enhance the capacity of citizens for development and to meet their basic needs.
Article 44 Environmental Rights
- All persons have the right to a clean and healthy environment.
- All persons who have been displaced or whose livelihoods have been adversely affected as a result of State programmes have the right to commensurate monetary or alternative means of compensation, including relocation with adequate State assistance.
STATE STRUCTURE Article 45 Form of Government
The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia shall have a parliamentarian form of government.
Article 46 States of the Federation
- The Federal Democratic Republic shall comprise of States.
- States shall be delimited on the basis of the settlement patterns, language, identity and consent of the peoples concerned.
Article 47 Member States of the Federal Democratic Republic
- Member States of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia are the Following: 1) The State of Tigray 2) The State of Afar 3) The State of Amhara 4) The State of Oromia 5) The State of Somalia 6) The State of Benshangul/Gumuz 7) The State of the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples
- 8) The State of the Gambela Peoples
9) The State of the Harari People
- Nations, Nationalities and Peoples within the States enumerated in sub-Article 1 of this article have the right to establish, at any time, their own States.
- The right of any Nation, Nationality or People to form its own state is exercisable under the following procedures:
- When the demand for statehood has been approved by a two-thirds majority of the members of the Council of the Nation, Nationality or People concerned, and the demand is presented in writing to the State Council;When the Council that received the demand has organized a referendum within one year to be held in the Nation, Nationality or People that made the demand;
- When the demand for statehood is supported by a majority vote in the referendum;
- When the State Council will have transferred its powers to the Nation, Nationality or People that made the demand; and
- When the new State created by the referendum without any need for application, directly becomes a member of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia.
- Member States of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia shall have equal rights and powers.
Article 48 State Border Changes
- All State border disputes shall be settled by agreement of the concerned States. Where the concerned States fail to reach agreement, the House of the Federation shall decide such disputes on the basis of settlement patterns and the wishes of the peoples concerned.
- The House of Federation shall, within a period of two years, render a final decision on a dispute submitted to it pursuant to sub-Article 1 of this Article.
- Addis Ababa shall be the capital city of the Federal State.
- The residents of Addis Ababa shall have a full measure of self-government. Particulars shall be determined by law.
- The Administration of Addis Ababa shall be responsible to the Federal Government.
- Residents of Addis Ababa shall in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution, be represented in the House of Peoples’ Representatives.
- The special interest of the State of Oromia in Addis Ababa, regarding the provision of social services or the utilization of natural resources and other similar matters, as well as joint administrative matters arising from the location of Addis Ababa within the State of Oromia, shall be respected. Particulars shall be determined by law.
THE STRUCTURE AND DIVISION OF POWERS
Structure of the Organs of State
- The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia comprises the Federal Government and the State members.
- The Federal Government and the States shall have legislative, executive and judicial powers.
- The House of Peoples’ Representatives is the highest authority of the Federal Government. The House is responsible to the People. The State Council is the highest organ of State authority. It is responsible to the People of the State.
- State government shall be established at State and other administrative levels that they find necessary. Adequate power shall be granted to the lowest units of government to enable the People to participate directly in the administration of such units.
- The State Council has the power of legislation on matters falling under State jurisdiction. Consistent with the provisions of this Constitution, the Council has power to draft, adopt and amend the state constitution.
- The State administration constitutes the highest organ of executive power.
- State judicial power is vested in its courts.
- Federal and State powers are defined by this Constitution. The States shall respect the powers of the Federal Government. The Federal Government shall likewise respect the powers of the States.
- The Federal Government may, when necessary, delegate to the States powers and functions granted to it by Article 51 of this Constitution.
Powers and Functions of the Federal Government
- It shall protect and defend the Constitution.
- It shall formulate and implement the country’s policies, strategies and plans in respect of overall economic, social and development matters.
- It shall establish and implement national standards and basic policy criteria for public health, education, science and technology as well as for the protection and preservation of cultural and historical legacies.
- It shall formulate and execute the country’s financial, monetary and foreign investment policies and strategies.
- It shall enact laws for the utilization and conservation of land and other natural resources, historical sites and objects.
- It shall establish and administer national defence and public security forces as well as a federal police force.
- It shall administer the National Bank, print and borrow money, mint coins, regulate foreign exchange and money in circulation; it shall determine by law the conditions and terms under which States can borrow money from internal sources.
- It shall formulate and implement foreign policy; it shall negotiate and ratify international agreements.
- It shall be responsible for the development, administration and regulation of air, rail, waterways and sea transport and major roads linking two or more States, as well as for postal and telecommunication services.
- It shall levy taxes and collect duties on revenue sources reserved to the Federal Government; it shall draw up, approve and administer the Federal Government’s budget.
- It shall determine and administer the utilization of the waters or rivers and lakes linking two or more States or crossing the boundaries of the national territorial jurisdiction.
- It shall regulate inter-State and foreign commerce.
- It shall administer and expand all federally funded institutions that provide services to two or more States.
- It shall deploy, at the request of a state administration, Federal defence forces to arrest a deteriorating security situation within the requesting State when its authorities are unable to control it.
- It shall enact, in order to give practical effect to political rights provided for in this Constitution, all necessary laws governing political parties and elections.
- It has the power to declare and to lift national state of emergency and states of emergencies limited to certain parts of the country.
- It shall determine matters relating to nationality.
- It shall determine and administer all matters relating to immigration, the granting of passports, entry into and exit from the country, refugees and asylum.
- It shall patent inventions and protect copyrights.
- It shall establish uniform standards of measurement and calendar.
- It shall enact laws regulating the possession and bearing of arms.
Article 52 Powers and Functions of States
- All powers not given expressly to the Federal Government alone, or concurrently to the Federal Government and the States are reserved to the States.
- Consistent with sub-Article 1 of this Article, States shall have the following powers and functions:
- To establish a State administration that best advances self-government, a democratic order based on the rule of law; to protect and defend the Federal Constitution;
- To enact and execute the state constitution and other laws;
- To formulate and execute economic, social and development policies, strategies and plans of the State;
- To administer land and other natural resources in accordance with Federal laws;
- To levy and collect taxes and duties on revenue sources reserved to the States and to draw up and administer the State budget;
- To enact and enforce laws on the State civil service and their condition of work; in the implementation of this responsibility it shall ensure that educational; training and experience requirements for any job, title or position approximate national standards;
- To establish and administer a state police force, and to maintain public order and peace within the State;
THE FEDERAL HOUSES Article 53 The Federal Houses
There shall be two Federal Houses: The House of Peoples’ Representatives and the House of the Federation.
THE HOUSE OF PEOPLES’ REPRESENTATIVES
Article 54 Members of the House of Peoples’ Representatives
- Members of the House of Peoples’ Representatives shall be elected by the People for a term of five years on the basis of universal suffrage and by direct, free and fair elections held by secret ballot.
- Members of the House shall be elected from candidates in each electoral district by a plurality of the votes cast. Provisions shall be made by law for special representation for minority Nationalities and Peoples.
- Members of the House, on the basis of population and special representation of minority Nationalities and Peoples, shall not exceed 550; of these, minority Nationalities and Peoples shall have at least 20 seats. Particulars shall be determined by law.
- Members of the House are representatives of the Ethiopian People as a whole. They are governed by:
- The Constitution;
- The will of the people; and
- Their Conscience.
- No member of the House may be prosecuted on account of any vote he casts or opinion he expresses in the House, nor shall any administrative action be taken against any member on such grounds.
- No member of the House may be arrested or prosecuted without the
permission of the House except in the case of flagrante delicto.
- A member of the House may, in accordance with law, lose his mandate of representation upon loss of confidence by the electorate.
Article 55 Powers and Functions of the House of Peoples’ Representatives
- The House of Peoples’ Representatives shall have the power of legislation in all matters assigned by this Constitution to Federal jurisdiction.
- Consistent with the provision of sub-Article 1 of this Article, the House of Peoples’ Representatives shall enact specific laws on the following matters:
- Utilization of land and other natural resources, of rivers and lakes crossing the boundaries of the national territorial jurisdiction or linking two or more States;