LANGUAGE ARTS :: SECONDARY RESOURCES :: WRITING HANDBOOK :: HOW CAN I HELP MY STUDENTS WRITE EFFECTIVE CONCLUSIONS
Students often complain that they don't know what to say in the conclusion because the composition "said it all" or they feel that the conclusion will just end up being a restatement of the introduction. Ultimately, though, the writing needs to have a feeling of "completeness" when it ends. The following suggestions may help as they compose their conclusions.A thesis is generally considered a statement of the main point of the composition. Although there is a danger of sounding repetitive, students may wish to restate the thesis (using new language) to reinforce the main point of the essay. Students may wish to bring the essay to a close with a paragraph that leads up to a rhetorical question that will be memorable and thought-provoking for the reader. If the essay identifies and discusses a problem, the student may want to suggest a course of action for the reader to consider (Clouse, 2001). Depending on the length and content of the essay, a summary paragraph may be an appropriate way to bring the piece to a close and help the reader digest what was written.Clouse (2001) suggests that students may want to consider looking to the future beyond the essay to bring it to a close by thinking of potential consequences of ignoring or following advice in the essay, for example.
In Culinary Arts and Hospitality II, students conclude essays about food safety by describing a course of action that individuals can take when they suspect that a restaurant fails to meet state and federal food safety standards even though they have received a passing inspection grade.
In Environmental and Natural Resources I, student groups experiment with two different endings for their multimedia presentations on some aspect of conservation. For peer response sessions, they first try looking to the future in their concluding slides, then they try using rhetorical questions. The peers give feedback on the most effective conclusions.
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Can I ask rhetorical questions in persuasive essays? How will the reader answer the question?
Rhetorical questions in persuasive essays are a great idea.
A question which is posed without the expectation of an answer is called a “rhetorical question.” Obviously, readers can’t answer the question to you, but they might answer the question to themselves. That’s the purpose of a rhetorical question. The root of this meaning is from the word “rhetoric” which is the art of making arguments. Rhetoric used to be one of the main areas of study before the modern school was invented. If you were in school in England in 1850, it would have been an important subject. In those days it was believed that the ability to discuss ideas was the most important thing for students to learn since education wasn’t valued for its practical aspects. It was for gentlemen who didn’t sully themselves with practical matters left to the lower classes. But I digress.
Dropping a rhetorical question into a persuasive argument is often a powerful form of persuasion. You present several facts and build up to a conclusion, drawing the conclusion out of the reader. For example, if you were trying to persuade the reader to support universal health care, you might ask “What kind of a country doesn’t ensure its citizens have access to health care?” For a reader to disagree with you, they would have to do some mental gymnastics in order to identify the underlying assumptions of the question–that universal health care is the only way to ensure all citizens have access to health care, or that if you disagree with the premise, you support an inferior version of the country.
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Rhetorical questions in persuasive essays as an introduction
Rhetorical questions can be one of the great ways to write an essay introduction. In my Essay Writing blog, I have a very popular article on 5 Great Essay Introduction Ideas. For example, in a persuasive essay on gun control, you might start by asking “Are homes with guns safer than those without guns?” In a persuasive essay on abortion, you could ask “What would you do if you were poor, single, and suddenly found yourself pregnant?”
Beginning a persuasive essay with a rhetorical question allows you to provide the answer. You can answer the question with a fact and citation. This gives your argument some weight. Later, you will need to provide a counter argument. Even that part can be improved with the use of a rhetorical question. “Why would someone believe XXX?” Then you provide some information and show that it’s not as reliable or valid as the argument you are putting forward.
You wouldn’t want to fill up your persuasive essay with rhetorical questions. It is one technique, to be used sparingly. But it can be very effective, and who wouldn’t want that?
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About Peter J. Francis
Peter J. Francis is owner and operator of HyperGraphix Publishing Services (HGPublishing.com). He has over 30 years of professional writing and editing experience. He holds a BA (Honors) degree in English (1987), a B. Ed. degree from SFU (2005) and a certificate in Special Education from SFU (2011). He teaches high school and offers editing services as time is available.
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