sumption, and pollution potential. The urban ghetto, for example, is at once the result of social, political, economic, and geographic processes, and addressing any one or two of these processes alone will not suffice to improve living conditions (Rose, 1971). Effective urban policy making requires an understanding of these spatial and functional characteristics, which are strongly geographic in nature (e.g., see Sidebar 6.1).
Metropolitan areas consisting of constellations of cities pose special problems and opportunities for policy makers owing to their political, industrial, and social complexities. The Los Angeles metropolitan area, for example, has evolved into industrial agglomerations based in part on high-technology firms that specialize in production for military applications (Scott, 1993). With the recent declines in defense spending, regional policy makers have worked to decrease the region's reliance on this sector of industry. Based on geographic analysis of the region's economic structure and role in the world economy, the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority and other agencies are developing an advanced ground transportation industry to take advantage of the region's skilled labor force and manufacturing capabilities.
Cities, of course, are more than built environments. People are their primary components, and significant inequities exist among city dwellers with respect to the basic necessities of life. Urban policies for the homeless, for example, show sharply defined geographic components (Dear and Wolch, 1987). Social and economic polarization, cyclical unemployment, changed housing and investment policies, and government policies for deinstitutionalizing the mentally ill have contributed to the increase in homelessness. Tolerance for the homeless tends to decline as distance from the city center increases. Policy makers and volunteers often reinforce the geography of the problem by concentrating their efforts to reduce homelessness on the central city. The policy implication is that homelessness, although rooted in the fabric of general society, has become a "city problem," and it is in the city that it will have to be resolved.
This nation's water resources are managed through massive public investments. By controlling the supply and distribution of water, reducing flooding, and offering recreational opportunities, the United States has created a partly artificial and partly natural hydrologic system that supports economic development, raising the quality of life for many but also decreasing the quality of life for others.
The diversion of water from rivers for irrigation, industrial uses, and urban water supply reshapes the character and geographic distribution of water-dependent ecosystems, sometimes eliminating them altogether. Overdrafts of groundwater supplies have lowered the water table in many areas, particularly in the western states, further altering surface ecosystems dependent on shallow groundwater.
Assignment 1: Social Performance of Organizations The United States based company Apple Incorporated has been established on a global scale through the production and distribution of computer-based software, cell phones, personal computers and other consumer electronic products. The company was founded by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak and Ronald Wayne in April of 1976 and was originally based to develop and distribute personal computers. The organization became Apple Computer, Incorporated and 1977 and was then later renamed Apple incorporated in 2007. Apple continues to be an innovator in electronic products and focused its attention on consumer electronics and join the Dow Jones Industrial Average in March 2015. Apple is considered the second largest information technology organization by revenue after its competitor Samsung Electronics. What's in the ending quarter of 2014 Apple was considered the largest publicly traded Corporation on the globe. The company employs nearly a hundred thousand permanent full-time employees while it maintains close to 500 retail stores in 17 different countries. It also operates and maintains its online base Apple Store and iTunes Store, which is considered the United States largest musical retailer. In addition, the organization is valued over 700 billion dollars. Apple's nature with the business is to remain and continue being a technology innovator within consumer electronics, computers, tablets, and phones. The two key factors in an organization's external environment that can cause its success are external stakeholder satisfaction and maintaining corporate social responsibility. In addition to the advances of technology, Apple has become known on a global scale by becoming a business organization that embraces economics on a global scale. The method of maintaining satisfaction among external stakeholders are what Apple embraces. The company embraces corporate social responsibility Social responsibility of corporations are defined as organizations that have the ability to act in such a manner that increases society and its customers. These organizations is to be held 2