Intellectual Freedom And Censorship An Annotated Bibliography




Abel, Richard. Speaking respect, respecting speech. Chicago; London: University of Chicago Press, 1998.

Abramson, Paul R. and Steven D. Pinkerton, Mark Huppin. Sexual Rights in America: the Ninth Amendment and the pursuit of happiness. New York, London: New York University Press, 2003.

Al-Gharbi, Musa. “Nir Eyal’s Newsletter featuring “It’s Disadvantaged Groups That Suffer Most When Free Speech Is Curtailed on Campus” and other interesting stories.” Nuzzel. July 08, 2017. Accessed July 20, 2017.

Altman, A. “The Right to get turned on: pornography, autonomy, equality.” In Contemporary debates in applied ethics. Eds. A Cohen and C. Heath-Wellman. Malden: Blackwell, 223-35.

American Protective League, “Smash Censorship!”, Americanism Protective League, New York City, April 14, 1924.

Amnesty International, “Voices for Freedom”, AI Publications, London, 1986.

Article 19, “Information, Freedom, and Censorship, Article 19 World Report”, pp. 340, Longman, Harlow, England, 1988.

Article 19, “Information, Freedom, and Censorship report”, Article 19International Centre for Censorship, pp. 471, Library Association Publishing, London, 1991.

Article 19, “Information, Freedom, and Censorship, Article 19 World Report”, xv, pp. 471, Library Association Publishing, London, 1991.

Atkins, Robert and Mintcheva, Svetlana (eds.), “Censoring Culture: Contemporary Threats to Free Expression,” New Press, 2006.

Australia Law Reform Commision, “Censorship Procedure”, xix. pp. 141,Australian Law Commission, Sydney, 1991.

Australian Institute of Criminology, “Sex, Violence, and ‘Family’ Entertainment”, Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra, 1987.

Avellaneda, Andres, “Censura, Autoritarismo y Cultura: Argentina…”, Vol. 2,pp. 276, Centro Editor de America Latina, Buenos Aires, 1986.

Baase, Sara. A Gift of Fire. New Jersey: Pearson Education, 2003.

Bacon, Wendy, “Censorship/Wendy Bacon vs. Peter Coleman”, pp. 82, Heinemann Educational Australia, South Yarra, Victoria, 1975

Baets, Antoon De, “Censorship of Historical Thought: A World Guide, 1945-2000”, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2001.

Bailey, Paul. Censoring Sexuality. London: Seagull Books, 2008.
Despite Western culture´s roots and much touted pride in its classical Greek and Roman legacy, the sexual freedoms of the ancient world have had no place in the official cultures of Western societies. As late as the 19th Century, homosexuality was the “love that dare not speak its name”. In Censoring Sexuality, Paul Bailey examines and analyses the various kinds of censorship – political, literary, cultural – which have oppressed and silenced homosexual men and women. Such a history of censorship extends, of course, way beyond Europe. American puritanism has hugely impacted not only on the lives but also the art works of writers and film-makers whilst the moral values of Hollywood have influenced generations. Discussing artists as diverse as Marcel Proust, Benjamin Britten, WH Auden and Terence Rattigan, Saki and Ronald Firbank, Censoring Sexuality explores the true nature of “camp” and the rich tradition of subversive and comic art created by the censoring of the sexual.

Barber, D. F. Pornography and Society. London: Charles Skilton, 1972.

Barber, Fionna, “Against the act of union: censorship……”, “High Performance”, Vol. 15, pp. 24-27, Spring 1992.Bollinger, Lee C. The Tolerant Society: Free Speech and Extremist Speech in America. 1986.

Barnes, Clive (ed.), “Report of the President’s…”, Commission on Obscenity and Pornography, Bantam Books, New York, 1970.

Barrow, Andrew, “The Flesh is Weak”, Hamish Hamilton, London, 1980.

Barry, Bruce. Speechless: The Erosion of Free Speech in the American Workplace. San Francisco: Berett-Koehlher Publishers, Inc., 2007.

Beacon for Freedom of Epression “international database on censorship,” (last visited Oct. 4, 2003). Bollinger, Lee C. and Geoffrey R. Stone, ed. Eternally Vigilant: Free Speech in the Modern Era. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002.

Benefrat, R., “Censorship by the Mob”, “Index on Censorship”, Vol.19, Iss. 9, pp14, Writers and Scholars International, London, 1990.

Bennett, John Tuson, “Freedom of Expression in Australia”, A Civil Liberties Publication, pp. 39, South Yarra, Victoria, 1968.

Berger, Melvin, “Censorship”, pp. 84, F. Watts, New York, 1982.

Berninghausen, David K., “The Flight from Reason”, xiv, pp. 175, American Library Association, Chicago, 1975.

Bloch, Sidney and Reddaway, Peter, “Russsia’s Political Hospitals: The Abuse of Psychiatry..”, pp. 510, Gollancz, London, 1977.

Bolton, Richard, “Culture Wars”, New York Press, New York, 1992.

Boyce, Bret. Obscenity & Community Standards. 33 Yale J. Int’l. L. 288 (2008).

Boyer, Dominic. “Censorship as a Vocation: The Institutions, Practices, and Cultural Logic of Media Control in the German Democratic Republic” in Comparative Studies in Society and History. July 2003, Vol. 45 Issue 3, p511, 35p.

Boyer, Paul S., “Urban Masses and Moral Order in America, 1820-1920”, pp.387, Scribners, New York, 1978. Bracken, Harry. Freedom of speech: words are not deeds. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1994.

Braun, Stefan. Democracy off balance: freedom of expression and hate propaganda law in Canada. Toronto; Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, 2004.

Bray, Abigail. “Merciless Doctrines: Child Pornography, Censorship, and Late Capitalism,” Signs, Vol. 37, No. 1, 2011.

Brison, S. “‘The Price we pay’? Pornography and harm.” In Contemporary debates in applied ethics. Eds. A Cohen and C. Heath-Wellman. Malden: Blackwell, 236-60, 2005.

Bristow, Edward J., “Vice and Vigilance”, Gill and Macmillan, Dublin, 1977.

Broun, Leech and Heywood, Margret, “Anthony Comstock: Roundsman of the Lord”, pp. 285, A. & C. Boni, New York, 1927.

Brown, Steven Preston. Trumping religion: the new Christian right, the free speech clause, and the courts. Tuscaloosa, Ala. : University of Alabama Press, 2002.

Bruce, Tammy. New thought police: inside the Left’s assault on free speech and free minds. Roseville, Calif.: Forum, 2001.

Bujanda, Jesus Martinez de, “Index de Rome 1557, 1559, 1564: les premiers index romains…”, pp. 1037, Centre d’etudes de la Renaissance, Sherbrook, Quebec, 1990.

Bulloch, Stallybrass and Allan, Oliver (eds.), “The Fontana Dictionary of Modern Thought”, Fontana, London, 1977.

Butler, Judith. Excitable speech: a politics of the performative. New York ; London : Routledge, 1997.

Buranelli, Vincent, “The Trial of Peter Zenger”, New York University Press, New York, 1957.

Byrd, Cathy., Felshin, Nina., and Kincheloe, Lisa, “Potentially Harmful: The Art of American Censorship,” Georgia State University, 2006

Calder- Marshall, Arthur, “Lewd, blasphemous & obscene: being the trials”, pp.248, Hutchinson, London, 1972.

Calvert, Clay. Bylines Behind Bars: Fame, Frustration and First Amendment Freedom. 28 Loy. L.A. Ent. L. Rev. 71 (2007).

Calvert, Clay. The Two-step Evidentiary & Causation Quandary for Medium-specific Laws Targeting Sexual and Violent Content: First Proving Harm & Injury to Silence Speech, Then Proving Redress & Rehabilitation Through Censorship . 60 Fed. Comm. L. J. 157 (2008).

Cammack, Diana. At the crossroads: freedom of expression in Malawi. London: Article 19, International Centre Against Censorship, 2000.

Causton, Bernard, “Keeping It Dark, or, The Censors Handbook”, pp. 83,Mandrake Press, London, 1930?.

Caute, David, “The Espionage of the Saints: Two essays on silence and the State”, pp. 212, Hamilton, London, 1986.

Cernadas-Lamadrid, Juan Carlos, “La Censura”, “Yo Fui Testigo”, pp.128, Editorial Perfil, Buenos Aires, 1986.

Chandos, John, “To Deprave and Corrupt”, Souvenir Press, London, 1962.

Coronel, Sheila S., ed. Right to know: access to information in Southeast Asia. Quezon City: Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism, 2001.

Chesterman, Michael. Freedom of speech in Australian law: a delicate plant. Aldershot; Burlington USA: Ashgate, 2000.

Chomsky, Noam, “Necessary Illusions: Thought Control in DemocraticSocieties”, South End Press, Cambridge, MA, 1989. Cloonan, Martin. Banned! Censorship of Popular Music in Britain: 1967-92. Great Britain: Arena, 1996.

Clor, Harry M., “Censorship and Freedom of Expression”, pp. 175, RandMcNally, Chicago, 1971.

Close, Crandall. Speech and Subsidies: How Government Uses Financial Threats & Incentives to Dampen First Amendment Protections. 6 First Amend. L. Rev. 285 (2008).

Coetzee, J. M., “Giving Offense: Essays on Censorship”, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1996.

Coleman, Peter, “Obscenity, Blasphemy, Sedition:100 years of censorship in Australia”, pp. 141, Angus and Robertson, Sydney, 1974. College Art Association, ed.,”Uneasy Pieces: Controversal works…”, “Art Journal”, vol. 51,pp.22-91, College Art Association of America, New York, Spring 1992.

Colosimo, Anastasia. Les bûchers de la liberté. Paris: Stock, 2016.
What is the Charlie Hebdo massacre telling us, at a time when things around January 11th are crystallizing? That the accusation of blasphemy has not come back, it has just never left us. That it is a religious principle, but has always been a political instrument. This book delves into blasphemy across time and space, from Rushdie to Dieudonné, from Islamabad to Copenhagen, from the European Court for Human Rights to the US Supreme Court, mentioning the Bible, the Koran, and the Mohammed cartoons. Because, beyond the outrage, the key question whether, today, France has not secretly turned its back to freedom of expression.

Copp, David; Wendell, Susan, “Pornography and Censorship”, Prometheus Books, New York, 1983. Delgado, Richard and Jean Stefancic. Must We Defend Nazis? hate speech, pornography, and new First Amendment. New York: New York University Press, 1997.

Corbin, Caroline Mala. Mixed Speech: When Speech is Both Private & Governmental. 83 N.Y.U.L. Rev. 605 (2008).

Coulton, G.C., “Inquisition and Liberty”, Peter Smith. Gloucester, MA, 1959.

Court, John Hugh, “Changing Community Standards”, Lutheran Publishing House, Adelaide, Australia, 1972.

Day, Nancy; Winget, Mary; “Censorship: Or Freedom of Expression?”, Lerner Publications Company, 2000.

De Grazia, Edward, “Censorship Landmarks”, Bowker, New York, 1969.

De Grazia, Edward, “Girls Lean Back Everywhere: The Law of Obscenity”, Random House, New York, 1992.

De Negroni, Barbara. Lectures Interdites. Paris: Bibliotheque Albin Michel, 1995.

Dern, Bruce; Crane, Robert; Fryer, Christopher. Things I’ve Said But Probably Shouldn’t Have: An Unrepentant Memoir. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2007.

Demac, Donna. Liberty Denied: The Current Rise of Censorship in America. New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1990.

DeMitchell, Todd A.; Fossey, Richard. Student Speech: School Boards, Gay/Straight Alliances & the Equal Access Act. 2008 BYU Educ. & L. J. 89.

Dennis, Donna I. and Erlanger, Howard S. “Obscenity Law and the Conditions of Freedom in the Nineteenth-Century United States” in Law & Social Inquiry, Spring 2002, Vol. 27 Issue 2, p369, 31p.

DiLeonardo, Tracey and Dee, Juliet. “Discouraging ‘Objectionable’ Music Content: Litigation, Legislation, Economic Pressure, and More Speech” in Communications & the Law, Apr. 2003, Vol. 25 Issue 1, p13, 27p.

Dewhirst, Farrel and Martin, Robert, “The Soviet Censorship” pp. 170″Scarecrow Press, Metuchen, N.J., 1973.

Downs, Robert B. (ed.), “The First Freedom Today: Liberty and Justice”, xv., pp. 341, American Library Association, Chicago, 1984.

Dubin, Steven, “Art’s Enemies: Censors to the Right of Me, Censors to the Left of Me,” New Art Examiner, March, 1994: 26-31, 53; an expanded version appears in Journal of Aesthetic Education, Winter, 1994: 44-54.

Dubin, Steven, “Censorship and Transgressive Art,” in Smelser, Neil J., and Paul B. Baltes, eds., International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, Oxford, England: Pergamon, 2001.

Dubin, Steven, “Displays of Power: Controversy in the American Museum from Enola Gay to Sensation”, New York: New York University Press, 2000.

Dubin, Steven, “Displays of Power: Memory and Amnesia in the American Museum,” New York: New York University Press, 1999.

Dubin, Steven, “How I Got Screwed by Barbie: A Cautionary Tale,” New Art Examiner, November, 1995: 20-23.

Dubin, Steven, “How ‘Sensation’ Became a Scandal,” Art in America 88 (1), January, 2000: 53-59.

Dubin, Steven, “Pressed to the Limit: Printers and the Problematics of Censorship,” Journal of Visual Anthropology, Vol.9, 1997: 229-241.

Dubin, Steven, “That Girl!: The Saga Continues,” New Art Examiner, January, 1996:6.

Dubin, Steven, “The Barbie Exhibition: Show But Don’t Tell,” Curator Magazine, 39 (1) March, 1996: 15-18.

Dubin, Steven, “Uncivil Wars in Civil (-zed) Places,” pp.477-493 in MacDonald, Sharon, ed., Blackwell Companion to Museum Studies. London, Blackwell, 2006.

Dutton, Geoffrey and Harris, Max (eds.), “Australia’s Censorship Crisis”, pp.224, Sun Books, Melbourne, 1970.

Eastland, Terry, ed. Freedom of expression in the Supreme Court: the defining cases. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers; [Washington, D.C.]: Ethics and Public Policy Center, 2000. Erdman, Andrew L. Blue vaudeville: sex, morals and the mass marketing of amusement, 1895-1915. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co., 2004.

“The Economist” ed., “Gag, The Beloved Country”, “The Economist”, Vol. 307, pp42, May 21, 1988.

Elias, James; Diehl Elias, Veronica; Bullough, Vern L.; Jarvis, Will (eds.); “Porn101: Eroticism Pornography and the First Amendment”, Prometheus Books, New York, 2001.

Engdahl, Slyvia. Free Speech: Issues On Trial. Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press, 2007.

Ernst, Morris Leopold, “Censorship”, Macmillan, New York, 1964.

Feinberg, J. Offense to Others. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985. The second volume in Joel Feinberg’s series The Moral Limits of the Criminal LawOffense to Others focuses on the “offense principle,” which maintains that preventing shock, disgust, or revulsion is always a morally relevant reason for legal prohibitions. Feinberg clarifies the concept of an “offended mental state” and further contrasts the concept of offense with harm. He also considers the law of nuisance as a model for statutes creating “morals offenses,” showing its inadequacy as a model for understanding “profound offenses,” and discusses such issues as obscene words and social policy, pornography and the Constitution, and the differences between minor and profound offenses.

Feldman, Stephen. Free Expression and Democracy in America: A History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008. From the 1798 Sedition Act to the war on terror, numerous presidents, members of Congress, Supreme Court justices, and local officials have endorsed the silencing of free expression. If the connection between democracy and the freedom of speech is such a vital one, why would so many governmental leaders seek to quiet their citizens? Free Expression and Democracy traces two rival traditions in American culture—suppression of speech and dissent as a form of speech—to provide an unparalleled overview of the law, history, and politics of individual rights in the United States. Charting the course of free expression alongside the nation’s political evolution, from the birth of the Constitution to the quagmire of the Vietnam War, Stephen M. Feldman argues that our level of freedom is determined not only by the Supreme Court, but also by cultural, social, and economic forces. Along the way, he pinpoints the struggles of excluded groups—women, African Americans, and laborers—to participate in democratic government as pivotal to the development of free expression.

Fellion, Matthew, and Katherine Inglis. Censored: a literary history of subversion and control. Montreal: McGill-Queens University Press, 2017.
The list of books suppressed in the English language features the sacred and profane, poetic and pornographic, famous and infamous. A history of literary censorship is therefore a history not only of texts but of the authorities that have attempted to prevent their circulation: sovereigns, politicians, judges, prison officers, slaveholders, school governors, librarians, teachers, parents, students, editors and publishers. Censored deals with some of the most contentious and fascinating cases, including works now praised as literary masterpieces, such as James Joyce’s Ulysses and Vladimir Nabokov’s Lolita; as well as a troubling book about assassination that was implicated in a murder case. The books in this comprehensive study have been chosen to showcase the variety of suppressed literature, the methods and consequences of censorship, and landmarks in the history of free speech.

Finan, Christopher M., “From the Palmer Raids to the PATRIOT Act: A History of the Fight for Free Speech in America,” Boston: Beacon Press, 2007.

Fisher, Dan, “Incredible pressure from right, left hate mail….”, Los Angeles Times, March 10, 1988.

Fisher, Dan, “Board Bans Play–New Debate in Israel”, Los Angeles Times, October 5, 1985.

Fiss, Owen. Irony of free speech. Cambridge, Ma. : Harvard University Press, 1996. Freedman,

Fragnito, Gigliola. Church, Censorship and Culture in Early Modern Italy, trans. Adrian Belton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

Friedman, Andrea. Prurient Interests: Gender, Democracy, and Obscenity in New York City, 1909-1945.

Friedman, Andrea. “Sadists and Sissies: Anti-pornography Campaigns in Cold War America.” in Gender & History, Aug. 2003, Vol. 15 Issue 2, p201, 27p.

Fuller, Robert. Naming the Antichrist: The History of an American Obsession. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Gallofre i Virgili, Marie Josepa, “L’ edicio Catalana i la Censura Franquista: 1939-1951”, “Biblioteca Abat Oliba”, pp. 542, Publicacions de l’Abadia deMontserrat, Barcelona, 1991.

Gapper, Sandra, “Censorship (sound recording)”, Library Association of Australia, Sydney, 1982.

Gardiner, Harold Charles, Catholic Viewpoint on Censorship, Doubleday Press, New York, 1961.

Garry, Patrick. Rediscovering a Lost Freedom: The First Amendment Right to Censor Unwanted Speech. Edison, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2008.

Gates, Henry Louis, et al. Speaking of race, speaking of sex : hate speech, civil rights, and civil liberties. New York : New York University Press, 1994.

Gelber, Katharine. Speaking back : the free speech versus hate speech debate. Amsterdam; Philadelphia: J. Benjamins Pub. Co., 2002.

Gerstmann, Evan and Streb, Matthew J. (eds.), “Academic Freedom at the Dawn of a New Century: How Terrorism, Governments, And Culture Wars Impact Free Speech,” Stanford University Press, 2006.

Gil, Luis, “Censura en el Mundo Antiguo”, “Alianza Universidad”(Series); 432, pp. 332, Alianza Editorial, Madrid, 1985.

Gitlan, Todd. Media Unlimited: How the Torrent of Images and Sounds Overwhelms Our Lives. New York: Metropolitan Books, 2001.

Goldstein, Robert Justin, “Political censorship of Arts and Press in 19th Century Europe”, pp. 232, Macmillan, Basingstoke, England, 1989.

Goldstein, Robert, “New York Times 20th Century in Review: Political Censorship”, Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, Chicago, 2001.

Gordon, George N., “Erotic Communications: Studies in Sex, Sin, and Censorship”, “Humanistic Studies in Communication Arts”, pp. 338 ,Hastings House, New York, 1980.

Grendler, Paul F., “Culture & Censorship in the late Renaissance in Italy& France”, pp. 318, Variorum Reprints, London, 1981.

Gurstein, Rochelle. The Repeal of Reticence. New York: Hill and Wang, 1996. This book explores the arguments made for and against three forces that have transformed American life in the past century–invasive journalism, realistic fiction, and sex reform. Rochelle Gurstein examines the unexpected consequences of the victory of the “party of exposure,” which opened the public sphere to once private matters, and considers the positions of the “party of reticence,” which believed that an indiscriminate display of private matters deformed taste and judgment, lowered the tone of public conversation, and polluted public space. Gurstein’s analysis establishes the vital connection between legal-cultural history and current debates over obscenity, privacy, and public decency.

Haiman, Franklyn Saul. Religious expression and the American Constitution. East Lansing : Michigan State University Press, 2003.

Haiman, Franklyn Saul. “Speech acts” and the First Amendment. Carbondale : Southern Illinois University Press, c1993.

Hall, James and Sandra, “Austalian Censorship:The XYZ of Love”, pp. 148, Jackde Lissa, Sydney, 1970.

Haraszti, Mikls, The Velvet Prison (L’Artiste D’Etat), pp. 165, Basic Books, NewYork, 1987.

Hare, Ivan. Extreme Speech and Democracy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.

Harer, John B. People for and against restricted or unrestricted expression. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002.

Hargreaves, Robert. First freedom: a history of free speech. Stroud: Sutton, 2002. Harper, Joseph and Thom Yantek, ed. Media, profit, and politics: competing priorities in an open society. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 2003.

Harvey, Philip D., “The Government vs. Erotica: The Siege of Adam & Eve,” Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2001.

Haynes, Charles C., Chaltain Sam., and Glisson, Susan M., “First Freedoms: A Documentary History of First Amendment Rights in America,” Oxford University Press, 2006

Heins, Marjorie. “Banning words: a comment on ‘words that wound.'” 18 Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review 585 (1983).

Heins, Marjorie, “Not in Front of the Children: Indecency, Censorship, and the Innocence of Youth,” Hill & Wang Pub, 2001

Heins, Marjorie, “Sex Sin and Blasphemy”, The New Press, 1993.

Hensley, Thomas R. Boundaries of freedom of expression & order in American democracy. Kent, Ohio : Kent State University Press, 2001.

Hentoff, Nat, “The First Freedom: Tumultuous History of Free Speech in America”, pp. 340, Delacorte Press, New York, 1980.

Herr, Cheryl, “The Erotics of Irishness”, “Critical Inquiry”, Vol.17, Iss. 1, pp1-34, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1990.

Herz, Michael and Peter Molnar. The Content and Context of Hate Speech. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012. The contributors to this volume consider whether it is possible to establish carefully tailored hate speech policies that are cognizant of the varying traditions, histories, and values of different countries. Throughout, there is a strong comparative emphasis, with examples (and authors) drawn from around the world. All the authors explore whether or when different cultural and historical settings justify different substantive rules given that such cultural relativism can be used to justify content-based restrictions and so endanger freedom of expression. Essays address the following questions, among others: Is hate speech in fact so dangerous or harmful to vulnerable minorities or communities as to justify a lower standard of constitutional protection? What harms and benefits accrue from laws that criminalize hate speech in particular contexts? Are there circumstances in which everyone would agree that hate speech should be criminally punished? What lessons can be learned from international case law?

Heumann, Milton and Thomas W. Church with David Redlawsk. Hate speech on campus: cases, case studies, and commentary. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1997.

Heyman, Stephen J. Free Speech and Human Dignity. London; New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2008.

Heyman, Steven J., ed. Hate Speech and the Constitution. New York: Garland, 1996.

Hoffman, Paul. The Golden Age of Censorship. London: Doubleday UK, 2007.

Hollingsworth, Peggie, ed. Unfettered expression: freedom in American intellectual life. Ann Arbor : University of Michigan Press, 2000.

Horowitz, Helen Lefkowitz, “Rereading Sex: Battles over Sexual Knowledge and Suppression in Nineteenth-Century America,” New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002.

Houchin, John H. Censorship of the American theatre in the twentieth century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Hudson, Anthony. “Fighting Words” in Index on Censorship. Oct. 2003, Vol. 32 Issue 4, p 45, 7p. Focuses on the use of language to achieve and maintain the subordination of minorities. Laws banning racist and offensive words in Great Britain; Conflict between freedom of expression and protecting people from offensive and racist language; International conventions that prohibit racial discrimination and racist propaganda.

Hull, Mary E., “Censorship in America, A reference handbook”, ABC-Clio, Santa Barbara, CA, 1999.

Human Rights Commission, “Freedom of Expression and Section 116….”, pp. 22,AGPS, Canberra, 1985.

Hurwitz, Leon, “Historical Dictionary of Censorship in the U.S.”, lxiii &pp. 584, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT, 1985.

Hutt, Wolfgang, “Hintergrund: mit den Unzuchtigkeits”, pp. 411,Henschelverlag, Berlin, 1990.

Hyde, Montgomery, “History of Pornography”, pp. 246, Farrer, Shaws and Giroux, New York , 1965. Jacobson, Colin (ed.), “Underexposed: Pictures Of The 20th Century They Didn’t Want You To See”, Vision on, 200

Iacub, Marcela. De la pornographie en Amérique. Paris: Fayard, 2010.2.

Irons, Peter, “May It Please the Court: Courts, Kids, and the Constitution: Live Transcripts of Sixteen Supreme Court Oral Arguments on the Constitutional Rights of Students and Teachers,” New York: The New Press, 2000.

Jacobson, Lauren, et al. Limits of liberty : obscenity, blasphemy & hate-speech, how much can we tolerate? Published by the Weekly Mail & Guardian Film Festival in association with the Mayibuye Centre, University of the Western Cape, and the Anti-Censorship Action Group for the Limits of Liberty conference, 1993.

Jansen, Sue Curry, “Censorship: the knot that binds power ….”, vii, pp.282,Oxford University Press, New York, 1991.

Jarecke, George W. Seeking civility: common courtesy and the common law. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 2003.

Jasper, Margaret. The Law of Obscenity and Pornography. Dobbs Ferry, N.Y.: Oceana Publications, 1996.

Johansen, Bruce E. Silenced! American Freedom, Scientific Research & the First Amendment Under Siege in America. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2007.

Johnson, Claudia, “Stifled Laughter: One Woman’s Story About Fighting Censorship”, Fulcrum pub., 1994.

Johnson, Priscilla, “Khrushchev & Art: Politics of Soviet Culture”, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1965.

Jones, Derek, “Censorship : A World Encyclopedia”, Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, Chicago, 2001.

Jones, Michael, “20th Century Lies”, “New Statesman and Society”,Vol. 4, pp 1-32, Stateman and Nation Pub. Co. Ltd., London, 1991.

Judson, Janis L. Law, media, and culture : the landscape of hate. New York : Peter Lang, 2002.

Jurinski, James. Religion on trial: a handbook with cases, laws, and documents. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 2004.

Kaminer, Wendy, “Free for All: Defending Liberty in America Today,” Boston: Beacon Press, 2002.

Karst, Kenneth. “Boundaries and Reason: freedom of expression and the subordination of groups.” 1990 University of Illinois Law Review 95.

Kenner, Robert, “That was then: Comstock’s crusade continues”, “Art and Antiques”, Vol. 7, pp. 64, Billboard Publications, New York, November 1990. Kersch, Kenneth Ira. Freedom of speech: rights and liberties under the law. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 2003.

Kick, Russell. Abuse your illusions: the disinformation guide to media mirages and establishment lies. New York: Disinformation, 2003.

Klein, Marty. America’s War on Sex: The Continuing Attack on Law, Lust, and Liberty. Westport: Praeger, 2012. Americans are more vulnerable today than ever to anxiety about sexual danger, to believing that their sexuality is not “normal” or moral, and to laws and public policies that restrict their rights, criminalize their consenting behavior, and confuse and miseducate their children. In the second edition of America’s War on Sex: The Continuing Attack on Law, Lust, and Liberty, psychologist, sex therapist, and courtroom expert witness Marty Klein sets the record straight and uncovers how the “Sexual Disaster Industry” works—a powerful social and political propaganda machine that is supported by the very citizens it victimizes. This book analyzes eight “battlegrounds” in which America’s War on Sex is being fought and examines how each one is the focus of an unrelenting struggle to regulate sexuality in direct contradiction to our Constitutional guarantees, scientific fact, and the needs of average Americans. Klein places these various attacks on our rights in historical context, explains how the money and political power are coordinated from the same sources, and shows how the Religious Right inflames Americans’ anxiety about sexuality even as it proposes repressive schemes to reduce that anxiety. This book tackles a sensitive and volatile topic head-on, addressing how the political, social, historical, religious, and emotional issues surrounding public policy interfaces with sexuality as no other work has before.

Kosuth, Joseph, and Charlotta Kotik. The Brooklyn Museum collection: the play of the unmentionable: an installation by Joseph Kosuth. Brooklyn, NY: Brooklyn Museum, 1990.

Kretzmer, David. “Freedom of Speech and Racism.” 8 Cardozo Law Review 445 (1987).

Kuh, Richard H., “Foolish Fig Leaves, Pornography in and out of court”, pp.368, Macmillan, New York, 1967.

Kupferman, Theodore R. (ed.), “Censorship, Secrecy, Access and Obscenity”, “Readings from Communications and the Law”, Vol. 3, pp. 422, Meckler, Westport, CT, 1990.

Laerke, Mogens. The Use of Censorship in the Enlightenment. Leidein: Brill, 2009.

LaMarche, Gara, ed. “Speech and Equality: Do we really have to choose?” New York: New York University Press, 1996.

Lane, Frederick S., “The Decency Wars: The Campaign to Cleanse American Culture,” Prometheus Books, 2006.

Lapham, Lewis H. Gag rule: on the suppression of dissent and the stifling of democracy. New York: The Penguin Press, 2004.

Latino americanes et luso-afro-bresiliennes, Universite de provence,centres derecherches, (ed.), “Le Theatre Sous la Contrainte”, pp. 264, Universite deProvence, Aix-en Provence, France, 1988.

Lederer, Laura and Richard Delgado, (eds.), “Price We Pay: The Case Against Racist Speech, Hate Propaganda, and Pornography,” New York : Hill and Wang, 1995.

Leone, Richard C. and Anrig, Jr., Greg (eds.), “The War on Our Freedoms: Civil Liberties in an Age of Terrorism,” New York: The Century Foundation, 2003.

Levesque, Roger J.R. Adolescents, Media & the Law: What Developmental Science Reveals and Free Speech Requires. London; New York: Oxford University Press USA, 2007.

Levinson, Nan. Outspoken: free speech stories. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003.

Lewis, Anthony. Freedom for the Thought We Hate: A Biography of the First Amendment. New York: Basic Books, 2008.

Lewis, Anthony. Make No Law: the Sullivan case and the First Amendment. New York: Vintage Books, 1992.

Liptak, Adam. Freedom to Offend Outside U.S.; Hate Speech Can Be Costly. New York Times, June 12, 2008.

Lucie-Smith, Edward. Censoring the Body. London: Seagull Books, 2007. From the earliest times, human beings have found it difficult to represent their own bodies in a straightforward way. At the dawn of art, representations of the nude body focused almost entirely on fertility, with some cultures explicit and others rather more prudish about representing the unclothed body. With the coming of Christianity, representations of the nude became associated with the idea of the Fall of Man and original sin. This conflicted with the need to show nude or nearly nude bodies when representing episodes from the passion of Christ and the martyrdoms of popular saints. Today, representations of the nude remain a battleground, fought over by libertarians and anti-libertarians. Most recently, feminism has challenged images of the female nude, while an increasing moral panic now restricts the depiction of the naked child – images which would have been commonplace in the art of the Renaissance. Censoring the Body exposes our bodies and our ideas about our bodies, revealing the complex historical and cultural legacies which frame – and obscure – our vision.

Lund, Robert. Ridicule, Religion and the Politics of Wit in Augustan England. London: Ashgate Publishing, 2012. Arguing for the importance of wit beyond its use as a literary device, Roger D. Lund outlines the process by which writers in Restoration and eighteenth-century England struggled to define an appropriate role for wit in the public sphere. He traces its unpredictable effects in works of philosophy, religious pamphlets, and legal writing and examines what happens when literary wit is deliberately used to undermine the judgment of individuals and to destabilize established institutions of church and state. Beginning with a discussion of wit’s association with deception, Lund suggests that suspicion of wit and the imagination emerges in attacks on the Restoration stage, in the persecution of “The Craftsman”, and in criticism directed at Thomas Hobbes’ “Leviathan” and works by writers like the Earl of Shaftesbury, Thomas Woolston, and Thomas Paine. Anxieties about wit, Lund shows, were in part responsible for attempts to suppress new communal venues such as coffee houses and clubs and for the Church’s condemnation of the seditious pamphlets made possible by the lapse of the Licensing Act in 1695. Finally, the establishment’s conviction that wit, ridicule, satire, and innuendo are subversive rhetorical forms is glaringly at play in attempts to use libel trials to translate the fear of wit as a metaphorical transgression of public decorum into an actual violation of the civil code.

MacPherson, Myra, “All Governments Lie: The Life and Times of Rebel Journalist I. F. Stone,” Scribner, 2006.

Magee, James J. Freedom of expression. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2002.

Marcus, Laurence R. Fighting words: the politics of hateful speech. Westport, Conn : Praeger, 1996.

Marshik, Celia. British Modernism and Censorship. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

Matas, David. Bloody words: hate and free speech. Winnipeg: Bain & Cox, 2000.

Matsuda, Mari. Words that Wound: Critical Race Theory, Assaultive Speech, and the First Amendment. Boulder, CO.: Westview Press, 1993.

Matsuda, Mari. Where is your body?: and other essays on race, gender, and the law. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1996.

Monroe H. and Eric M. Freedman. Group defamation and freedom of speech: the relationship between language and violence. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1995.

Moretti, Daniel S. Obscenity and pornography: the law under the First Amendment. London; New York: Oceana Publications, 1984.

Muller, Beate, ed. Censorship & cultural regulation in the modern age. Amsterdam: Rodopi B.V., 2004.

MacArthur, John R; Bagdikian, Ben Haig, “Second Front: Censorship and Propagandain the Gulf War”, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1993.

Manea, N., “The Concept of Censorship in Romania”, “Temps Modernes”, Vol 45, Iss 528, pp26-56, Temps Modernes, Paris, 1990.

Matheson, Peter. “Breaking the Silence: Women, Censorship and the Reformation,” Sixteenth Century Journal (1996) 27:1, 97-109.

Maximo, “Carta Abierta a la Censura”, “Collecion Carta Abierta”, pp. 125, Ediciones 99, Madrid, 1974.

Michael, James, “The Politics of Secrecy”, pp. 240, Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, 1982.

Millas, Hernan, “Los senores censores”, pp. 129, Ediciones Caperucita Rojasde Feroz: Distribudio por Editorial, Santiago, Chile, 1985.

Miller, Nicholas. The Religious Roots of the First Amendment: Dissenting Protestants and the Separation of Church and State. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Mooney, Chris, “The Republican War on Science,” York: Basic Books, 2005.

Mousavi, N., “The Obscure Limits of Freedom”, “Index on Censorship”, Vol 21, Iss 3, pp 18-18, Writers and Scholars Int. Ltd., London, 1992.

Murray, Bruce T. Religious Liberty in America: The First Amendment in Historical & Contemporary Perspective. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 2008.

Ndung’u, Simon Kimani. Right to dissent: freedom of expression, assembly and demonstration in South Africa. Johannesburg: Freedom of Expression Institute, 2003.

Neilson, William Allan. “The Theory of Censorship.” The Atlantic. January 01, 1930. Accessed July 20, 2017.

Newman, M.W., “The Smut Hunters”, pp. 38, All American Distributors Corporation, Los Angeles, 1965.

Noriega, Chon, “Something’s Missing Here! Homosexuality…”, “Cinema Journal”, Vol. 30, no. 1 pp. 20-41, University of Illinois Press, Champaign, IL, Fall1990.

Nicholson, Steve. Censorship of British drama, 1900-1968. Exeter, UK: University of Exeter Press, 2003.

Nowlin, Christopher J. Judging obscenity: a critical history of expert evidence. Montreal; Ithaca, N.Y.: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2003.

Nuzum, Eric D., “Parental Advisory: Music Censorship in America”, Quill, 2001.

Nzeribe, Atuchi and G.O., Ugochukwu (eds.), “Tell It As It Is”, Lenjon Printers, Enugu, Nigeria, 1985?.

O’Brien, David. Congress Shall Make No Law: The First Amendment, Unprotected Expression, and the U.S. Supreme Court. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2010.

O’ Neill, Terry (ed.), “Censorship Opposing Viewpoints”, pp. 234, Greenhaven Press, St. Paul, MN, 1983.

Oboler, Eli M., “Defending Intellectual Freedom”, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT, 1980.

Oboler, Eli M., “The Fear of the Word: Censorship and Sex”, pp. 362, Scarecrow Press, Metuchen, N.J., 1974.

Office for Intellectual Freedom, American Library Association, “Intellectual Freedom Manual”, xxxiii., pp. 230, 3rd Edition, American Library Association, Chicago, 1989.

Parker, Richard A., ed. Free speech on trial: communication perspectives on landmark Supreme Court decisions. Tuscaloosa, Ala.: University of Alabama Press, 2003.

Paseta, Senia. “Censorship and its critics in the Irish free state 1922-1932” in Past & Present. Nov. 2003, Issue 181, p193, 24p.

Passavant, Paul A. No escape: freedom of speech and the paradox of rights. New York: New York University Press, 2002.

Paxton, Mark. Censorship (Historical Guidelines to Controversial Issues in America). Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishers, 2008.

Post, Robert. “Racist Speech, Democracy, and the First Amendment.” 32 William and Mary Law Review 267 (1991).

Prados, John and Margaret Pratt Porter, ed. Inside the Pentagon papers. Lawrence, Kan.: University Press of Kansas, 2004.

Paul, James C. N. and Schwartz, Murray L., “Federal Censorship Obscenity in the Mail”, xv., pp. 368, Reprint, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT, 1977.

Peccegueiro, Alberto, “Publications in Brazil”, “Print”, Vol. 41, pp. 69-79, New York, November/December 1987.

Pipkin, Gloria; Lent, Releah Cossett; Ohanian, Susan, “At the Schoolhouse Gate: Lessons in Intellectual Freedom”, Heinemann, Portsmouth, 2002.

Petley, Julian, “Taking Flak”, “New Statesman and Society”, Vol.4pp 30-31, Statesman and Nation Pub. Co. Ltd., London, April 5, 1991.

Polenberg, Richard. Fighting Faiths: The Abrams Case, the Supreme Court, and Free Speech

Post, Robert, (ed.), Getty Research Institute, Roth, Michael (ed.), “Censorship and Silencing: Practices of Cultural Regulation”, J Paul Getty Museum Publications, 1998.

Pullen, Robert, “Guilty Secrets: Free Speech in Australia”, pp. 232, Methuen Australia, Sydney, 1984.

Randall, Margret, “When Imagination of Writer is Confronted..”, “Latin American Perspectives”, Vol. 16, No. 2, p. 115-23, Sage Periodicals Press, Newbury Park, CA, 1989.

Ripoll, Carlos, “Heresy of Words in Cuba”, “Harnessing the Intellectuals: Censoring Writers & Artists in Cuba”, pp. 59, Cuban American National Foundation, Washington, D.C., 1985.

Robertson, Geoffrey, “Obscenity an Account of Censorship Laws”, “Law in Context”, xviii, pp. 364, Weidenfeld and Nicholoson, London, 1979.

Rodgerson, Gillian and Wilson, Elizabeth (Feminists Against Censorship),”Pornography and Feminism: the case against Censorship”, pp. 79, Lawrence and Wishart, London, 1991.

Roleff, Tamara L., “Censorship (Opposing Viewpoints (Paper))”, Greenhaven Press, Chicago, 2001.

Ronald Collins and David Skover, The Trials of Lenny Bruce: The Rise and Fall of An American Icon

Rosenfeld, Sophia. “Writing the History of Censorship in the Age of Enlightenment.” In Postmodernism and the Enlightenment, edited by Daniel Gordon, 117-146. New York: Routledge, 2001.

Roth, Cecil, “The Spanish Inquisition”, pp. 316, Norton, New York, 1964.

Rubin, Marian. Naked Truths. New York: Writer’s Showcase, 2002. “the true story of a New Jersey grandmother who was arrested for taking innocent nude photos of her two young granddaughters.”

Russomanno, Joseph. Speaking our minds: conversations with the people behind landmark First Amendment cases. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2002.

Ryan, Margret and Mason, Stephen, “Censorship Procedure”, pp. 98, Australian Law Reform Commission, Sydney, 1991.

Schachter, Madeleine. Law of Internet speech. Durham, N.C. : Carolina Academic Press, 2002.

Segal, Jonathan. The Expressive Workplace Doctrine: Protecting the Public Discourse from Hostile Work Environment Actions. 15 UCLA. Ent. L. Rev. 1 (2008).

Senate Special Committee on Pornographic Plays, California Legislature Senate,” Investigation on ‘The Beard’ on CSU campus at Fullerton”, pp. 200, Senate of the State of California, Sacramento, 1968.

Shapiro, Bruce, “From Comstockery to Helmsmanship”, “The Nation”, Vol. 251, no. 10, pp. 335, October 1, 1990.

Shariff, S. Censorship!…or Selection? The Netherlands: Sense Publishers, 2007.

Shelford, April. “Of Scepters and Censors: Biblical Interpretation and Censorship in Seventeenth Century France,” French History 20 (2006): 161-181. In 1676 Pierre-Daniel Huet, scholar and tutor to the Dauphin, encountered difficulties with state censorship. Bishop Bossuet was blocking the publication of his Demonstratio evangelica, a recasting of an ancient Christian apologetic. The Sorbonne theologian and censor, Edme Pirot, was caught in the middle. An analysis of the interaction between these three men reveals Ancien Regime censorship as a series of negotiations shaped by the different stakes, personalities, ambitions and status of the participants. Huet and Bossuet’s quarrel also echoed the confessional debates of the sixteenth century and reflected disagreements within the Catholic Church thereafter. It raised such important questions as whether the Bible should be subjected to the same types of analysis as secular texts and anticipated concerns about the relationship between biblical criticism and the rise of irreligion. Throughout, Bossuet skillfully manipulated the mechanisms of state censorship to defend his vision of Church Tradition by delaying the publication of Huets Demonstratio and suppressing Richard Simons L histoire critique du Vieux Testament.

Shiell, Timothy C. Campus hate speech on trial. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998. Shils, Edward, “Remembering the Congress for Cultural Freedom”, “Encounter”, Vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 53, September 1990.

Shinder, Jason (ed.), “The Poem That Changed America: “Howl” Fifty Years Later,” New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2006.

Shuger, Debora. Censorship and Cultural Sensibility: The Regulation of Language in Tudor-Stuart England. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006. In this study of the reciprocities binding religion, politics, law, and literature, Debora Shuger offers a profoundly new history of early modern English censorship, one that bears centrally on issues still current: the rhetoric of ideological extremism, the use of defamation to ruin political opponents, the grounding of law in theological ethics, and the terrible fragility of public spheres. Starting from the question of why no one prior to the mid-1640s argued for free speech or a free press per se, Censorship and Cultural Sensibility surveys the texts against which Tudor-Stuart censorship aimed its biggest guns, which turned out not to be principled dissent but libels, conspiracy fantasies, and hate speech. The book explores the laws that attempted to suppress such material, the cultural values that underwrote this regulation, and, finally, the very different framework of assumptions whose gradual adoption rendered censorship illegitimate. Virtually all substantive law on language concerned defamation, regulating what one could say about other people. Hence Tudor-Stuart laws extended protection only to the person hurt by another’s words, never to their speaker. In treating transgressive language as akin to battery, English law differed fundamentally from papal censorship, which construed its target as heresy. There were thus two models of censorship operative in the early modern period, both premised on religious norms, but one concerned primarily with false accusation and libel, the other with false belief and immorality. Shuger investigates the first of these models—the dominant English one—tracing its complex origins in the Roman law of iniuria through medieval theological ethics and Continental jurisprudence to its continuities and discontinuities with current U.S. law. In so doing, she enables her reader to grasp how in certain contexts censorship could be understood as safeguarding both charitable community and personal dignitary rights.

Slack, Charles. Liberty’s First Crisis: Adams, Jefferson, and the Misfits Who Saved Free Speech. New York, NY: Atlantic Monthly, 2015. Print.
When the United States government passed the Bill of Rights in 1791, its uncompromising protection of speech and of the press were unlike anything the world had ever seen before. But by 1798, the once-dazzling young republic of the United States was on the verge of collapse: partisanship gripped the weak federal government, British seizures threatened American goods and men on the high seas, and war with France seemed imminent as its own democratic revolution deteriorated into terror. Suddenly, the First Amendment, which protected harsh commentary of the weak government, no longer seemed as practical. So that July, President John Adams and the Federalists in control of Congress passed an extreme piece of legislation that made criticism of the government and its leaders a crime punishable by heavy fines and jail time. In Liberty’s First Crisis, writer Charles Slack tells the story of the 1798 Sedition Act, the crucial moment when high ideals met real-world politics and the country’s future hung in the balance. From a loudmouth in a bar to a firebrand politician to Benjamin Franklin’s own grandson, those victimized by the Sedition Act were as varied as the country’s citizenry. But Americans refused to let their freedoms be so easily dismissed: they penned fiery editorials, signed petitions, and raised “liberty poles,” while Vice President Thomas Jefferson and James Madison drew up the infamous Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, arguing that the Federalist government had gone one step too far. Liberty’s First Crisis vividly unfolds these pivotal events in the early life of the republic, as the Founding Fathers struggled to define America off the page and preserve the freedoms they had fought so hard to create.

Sova, Dawn B. Banned Plays: Censorship Histories of 125 Stage Dramas. New York: Facts on File, 2004.

Snow, Nancy. Information War: American propaganda, free speech and opinion control since 9/11. New York: Seven Stories; London: Turnaround, 2003.

Soley, Lawrence, “Censorship Inc. The Corporate Threat to Free Speech in the United States”, Monthly Review Press, New York, 2002.

Solly, Sue and Cutler, Terry, “To Deprave and Corrupt: Censorship in Australia”, pp. 64, Lloyd O’Neil Pty Limited, Windsor, Victoria, 1975.

Sontag, Susan and Sale, Faith, “Letters…”, “New Statesman and Society”, Vol. 2, Iss: 38, pp. 9, Statement and Nation Pub. Co. Ltd., London, March24, 1989.

Springer, C., “The Aesthetics of Censorship-M. Haraszti”, “The New Hungarian Quarterly”, Vol 32, Iss 124, pp 150-152, Hungarian Quaterly, Budapest,1991.

Suma, Sarah F. Uncertainty & Loss in the Free Speech Rights of Public Employees Under Garcetti v. Ceballos. 83 Chi.-Kent. L. Rev. 369 (2008).

Sunstein, Cass. “Pornography and the First Amendment.” 1968 Duke Law Journal 589.

Tariq, Ali, “Banned by the British…”, “New Statesman and Society”, Vol 4 pp 16-18, Statesman and Nation Pub. Co. Ltd., London, 1991.

Taylor, Charles, “Titicut Follies”, “Sight and Sound”, Vol. 57,pp.98-103, Spring 1988.

Theiner, George (ed.), “They Shoot Writers, Don’t They?”, pp. 199, Faber and Faber, Boston, 1973.

Thompson, Sarah E., “Undercurrents in the Floating World”, Catalogue for Asia Society Galleries, pp. 104, Asia Society Galleries, New York, 1991.

Toubiana, Serge, “Censure, Danger Immediat..”, “Cahiers du Cinema”, Vol. 413, pp. 21-23, November 1988.

Tribe, David H., “Questions of Censorship”, pp. 368, Allen and Unwin, London, 1973.

Tricoire, Agnès. Petit traité de la liberté de création. Paris, La Découverte, 2011.

Trossen, Nadine. Defending Pornography: free speech, sex, and the fight for women’s rights. New York; London : New York University Press, 2000.

Tymicki, Jerzy, “New Dignity; the Polish Theater 1970-1985”, “The Drama Review”, Vol. 30, pp. 13, Fall 1986.

United Press International, “U.S. Dancers Keep It Modest for Chinese”,”Chicago Tribune”, October 31, 1985.

Vasudev, A., “Women Beware of Men”, “Index on Censorship”, Vol. 20,Iss. 3, pp 7-8, Writers and Scholars International, London, 1991.

Vianu, Lidia, “Censorship in Romania,” Central European University Press, Budapest – New York, 1998.

Vogel, Ryan J. Free Speech in the War on Terror: Does the Military Commissions Act Violate the First Amendment. 15 Hum. Rts. Br. 18 (2008).

Wajnryb, Ruth, “Expletive Deleted,” New York: Free Press, 2005.

Waldman, Emily Gold. Returning to Hazlewood’s Core: A New Approach to Restrictions on School-sponsored Speech. 60 Fla. L. Rev. 63 (2008).

Waldron, Jeremy. The Harm in Hate Speech. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2012. Every liberal democracy has laws or codes against hate speech—except the United States. For constitutionalists, regulation of hate speech violates the First Amendment and damages a free society. Against this absolutist view, Jeremy Waldron argues powerfully that hate speech should be regulated as part of our commitment to human dignity and to inclusion and respect for members of vulnerable minorities. Causing offense—by depicting a religious leader as a terrorist in a newspaper cartoon, for example—is not the same as launching a libelous attack on a group’s dignity, according to Waldron, and it lies outside the reach of law. But defamation of a minority group, through hate speech, undermines a public good that can and should be protected: the basic assurance of inclusion in society for all members. A social environment polluted by anti-gay leaflets, Nazi banners, and burning crosses sends an implicit message to the targets of such hatred: your security is uncertain and you can expect to face humiliation and discrimination when you leave your home. Free-speech advocates boast of despising what racists say but defending to the death their right to say it. Waldron finds this emphasis on intellectual resilience misguided and points instead to the threat hate speech poses to the lives, dignity, and reputations of minority members. Finding support for his view among philosophers of the Enlightenment, Waldron asks us to move beyond knee-jerk American exceptionalism in our debates over the serious consequences of hateful speech.

Walker, Alice; Holt, Patricia, “Banned”, Aunt Lute Books, San Francisco, 1996.

Waller, Susan. “Censors and Photographers in the Third Republic of France” in History of Photography. Autumn 2003, Vol. 27 Issue 3, p222, 14p.

Walton, Charles. Policing Public Opinion in the French Revolution: The Culture of Calumny and the Problem of Free Speech. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Watney, Simon, “Rolling Back Wolfenden”, “New Statesman and Society”, Vol. 4, pp 28-29, Statesman and Nation Pub. Co. Ltd., London, April 5,1991.Weinstein, James. Hate speech, pornography, and the radical attack on free speech doctrine. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1999.

West, Lindy. “Save Free Speech From Trolls.” The New York Times. July 01, 2017. Accessed July 20, 2017.

Wheeler, Leigh Ann. Against obscenity: reform and the politics of womanhood in America, 1873-1935. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004.

Whillock, Rita and David Slayden, ed. Hate Speech. Thousand Oaks, Calif. : Sage Publications, 1995.

Wicker, Tom, “Shooting Star: the Brief Arc of Joe McCarthy,” Orlando, FL: Harcourt, 2006.

Williams, Susan Hoffman. Truth, autonomy, and speech: feminist theory and the First Amendment. New York: New York University Press, 2004.

Williams, JA, “A Quick Hit at Racial Censorship”, American Book Review, Vol.5, Iss 1, pp 7-7, Dept. of English, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, 1982.

Wirenius, John F. First Amendment, first principles: verbal acts and freedom of speech. New York; London: Holmes & Meier, 2004.

Wolfson, Nicholas. Hate speech, sex speech, free speech. Westport, Conn. ; London : Praeger, 1998.

Zeinert, Karen, “Free Speech: From Newspapers to Music Lyrics (Issues in Focus)”, Enslow Publishers, New Jersey, 1995.

Zeiser, William (ed.), “Censorship: 500 Years of Conflict”, Oxford University Press, New York, 1984.

Zingo, Martha T. Sex/gender outsiders, hate speech, and freedom of expression: can they say that about me? Westport, Conn.; London: Praeger, 1998.



Abellan, Manuel L., “Censura y Creacion Literatura en Espana”, “Temas deHistoria y Politica Contemporanea”, Vol. 9, pp. 313, Ediciones Peninsula, Barcelona, 1980.

Adams, Helen R. Ensuring Intellectual Freedom and Access to Information in the School Library, Media Program. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited, 2008.

Ashbee, Henry S., “Forbidden Books of the Victorians”, Index Liborum Prohibitorum, pp. 239, Odyssey Press, London, 1970.

Asheim, L. “Not censorship, but selection.” In Book Selection and Intellectual Freedom: Proceedings of the Second Conference on Intellectual Freedom. Whittier, California. Ed. Frederick Mosher. Chicago: American Library Association, 90-99, 1954.

Asheim, L. “Selection and censorship: a reappraisal.” Wilson Library Bulletin 58 (November): 180-84, 1983.

Atkins, John, “Sex in Literature”, 4 Vol. , Calder and Boyars, London, 1982.

Barco, Kathy and Valerie Nye. True Stories of Censorship Battles in America’s Libraries. Chicago: American Library Association, 2012.

Barrier, N.G., “Banned: Controversial Lit. & Political Control in British India”, Colombia University of Missouri Press, 1974.

Basbanes, Nicholas. A Splendor of Letters: the permanence of books in an impermanent world. New York: Harpercollins, 2003.

Bhattacarya, Hiranmaya, “Raj and Literature: Banned Bengali Books”, pp. 229, Firma KLM, Calcutta, India, 1989.

Birn, Raymond. Royal Censorship of Books in Eighteenth-Century France. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2012. Today, we are inclined to believe that intellectual freedom has no greater adversary than the censor. In eighteenth-century France, the matter was more complicated. Royal censors envisioned themselves not as fulfilling a mission of state-sponsored repression but rather as guiding the literary traffic of the Enlightenment. By awarding pre-publication and pre-distribution approvals, royal censors sought to insulate authors and publishers from the scandal of post-publication condemnation by parliaments, the police, or the Church. Less official authorizations were also awarded. Though censors did delete words and phrases from manuscripts and sometimes rejected manuscripts altogether, the liberal use of tacit permissions and conditional approvals resulted in the publication and circulation of books that, under a less flexible system, might never have seen the light of day. In essence, eighteenth-century French censors served as cultural intermediaries who bore responsibility for expanding public awareness of the progressive thought of their time.

Blanshard, Paul, “The Right to Read”, pp. 339, Beacon Press, Boston, 1955.

Blume, Judy (ed.), “Places I Never Meant to Be: Original Stories by Censored Writers,” New York: Simon and Schuster, 1999.

Bosmajian, Haig, “Burning Books,” McFarland & Company, Inc., Jefferson, North Carolina, 2006

Bosmajian, Haig (editor). Censorship, Libraries, and the Law. New York: Neal-Schuman, 1983.

Boyer, Paul. Purity in Print: Book Censorship in America from the Gilded Age to the Computer Age. Madison: University of Wisconsin, 2002.

Bowerman, George. Censorship and the Public Library. Whitefish: Literary Licensing, 2012.

Board of Censors Rhodesia & Board of Censors Zimbabwe, “Catalogue of Banned Books, Periodicals, Records”, Board of Censors Rhodesia & Board of Censors Zimbabwe, Rhodesia and Zimbabwe, December 1967 – December 1975.

Bump, Myrna Marlene, “Censorship Practiced by High School Librarians…”, pp.195, University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, MI, 1980.

Burton, Betsy, “The King’s English: Adventures of an Independent Bookseller,” Salt Lake City: Gibbs Smith, Publisher, 2005.

Byrne, Alex. “The End of History: censorship and libraries” in Australian Library Journal. May 2004, Vol. 53 Issue 2, p133, 19p.

Califia, Pat; Fuller, Janine (eds.), “Forbidden Passages: Writings Banned in Canada”, Cleis Press, San Francisco, 1995.

Caravale, Giorgio. Forbidden Prayer: Church Censorship and Devotional Literature in Renaissance Italy. London: Ashgate Publishing, 2012.

Carefoot, Pearce J. Forbidden Fruit: Banned, Censored & Challenged Books from Dante to Harry Potter. Toronto: Lester, Mason & Bigg, 2007.

Cohen, Karl F., “Forbidden Animation: Censored Cartoons and Blacklisted Animatorsin America”, McFarland & Company, Jefferson, 1998.

Cohen, Nick. You Can’t Read This Book: Censorship in an Age of Freedom. London: Fourth Estate, 2012. From the fall of the Berlin Wall to the advert of the Web, everywhere you turn you are told that we live in age of unparalleled freedom. This is dangerously naïve. From the revolution in Iran that wasn’t to the imposition of super-injunctions from the filthy rich, we still live in a world where you can write a book and end up dead. After the fall of the Berlin Wall, the collapse of Communism, and the advent of the Web which allowed for even the smallest voice to be heard, everywhere you turned you were told that we were living in an age of unparalleled freedom. You Can’t Read This Book argues that this view is dangerously naive. From the revolution in Iran that wasn’t, to the Great Firewall of China and the imposition of super-injunctions from the filthy rich protecting their privacy, the traditional opponents of freedom of speech – religious fanaticism, plutocratic power and dictatorial states – are thriving, and in many respects finding the world a more comfortable place in the early 21st century than they did in the late 20th. This is not an account of interesting but trivial disputes about freedom of speech: the rights and wrongs of shouting ‘fire’ in a crowded theatre, of playing heavy metal at 3 am in a built-up area or articulating extremist ideas in a school or university. Rather, this is a story that starts with the cataclysmic reaction of the Left and Right to the publication and denunciation of the Satanic Verses in 1988 that saw them jump into bed with radical extremists. It ends at the juncture where even in the transgressive, liberated West, where so much blood had been spilt for Freedom, where rebellion is the conformist style and playing the dissenter the smart career move in the arts and media, you can write a book and end up destroyed or dead.

Cressy. “Book Burning in Tudor and Stuart England,” Sixteenth Century Journal 36/2 (2005): 359-374.

Darnton, Robert. The Forbidden Best-Sellers of Pre-Revolutionary France. London: HarperCollins, 1996.

Delfattore, Joan, “What Johnny Shouldn’t Read: Textbook Censorship in America”, Yale University Press, New Heaven, 1994.

Ditchfield, Peter Harpson, “Books Fatal to Their Authors”, pp. 244, B. Franklin, New York, 1970.

Dollimore, Jonathan, “Sex, Literature and Censorship”, Polity Press, Cambridge, 2001.

Dubin, Steven, “Poisoned Pens and Rattled Sabers: Two Years of Defending a Book about Controversial Art,” New Art Examiner, February, 1995: 26-29.

Esterow, Milton, “U.S.A. vs. One Book Called Ulysses”, “Art News”, Vol. 89, pp. 190, Art Foundation, Inc., New York, September 1990.

Farrer, J.A., “Books Condemned to Be Burnt”, Elliot Stock, London, 1892.

Foerstel, Herbert. Banned in the U.S.A.: A Reference Guide to Book Censorship in School and Public Libraries. Westport: Greenwood Publishing, 2002.

Foxon, David, “Libertine Literature in England, 1660-1745”, University Books, New Hyde Park, NY, 1965.

Godman, Peter. The Saint As Censor: Robert Bellarmine between Inquisition and Index. Leiden: Brill, 2000. The opening of the archives of the Roman Inquisition and of the Index of Prohibited Books, in January 1998, enables us to think afresh about the history of two organizations more notorious than understood. Both have been considered, almost exclusively, from the perspective of their victims, such as Galileo Galilei. This text uses sources of the Inquisition and Index to reconstruct the history of Roman censorship in its first, formative years from the standpoint of Galileo’s judge, Robert Bellarmine. Robert Bellarmine (1542-1621) was a censor for the Index and a “consultor” to the Holy Office, before becoming cardinal-inquisitor and (three centuries after his death) a saint and Doctor of the Church. His career provides a paradigm of how an intellectual could make his way to the top in Counter-Reformation Rome. Censored by Pope Sixtus V, Bellarmine responded by suppressing the pontiff’s version of the Vulgate and by repressing the Sistine Index of Prohibited Books. An interpretation and re-evaluation of Galileo’s first “trial” of Roman censorship is offered in this book, which is based on sources from the archives, which it edits and interprets.

Goldstone, Lawrence & Nancy, “Out of the Flames: The Remarkable Story of a Fearless Scholar, a Fatal History, and One of the Rarest Books in the World,” New York: Broadway Books, 2002.

Goodman, Michael B., “Contemporary Literary Censorship: The Case of Burroughs’ ‘Naked Lunch'” pp. 330, Scarecrow, Metuchen, N.J., 1981.

Geller, Evelyn, “Forbidden Books in American Public Libraries (1876-1939)”, pp. 234, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT, 1984.

Gillett, Charles R., “Burned Books”, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT, 1932 and1972.

Haight, Anne Lyon, “Banned Books, 387 B.C.-1978 A.D.”, 4th edition, R.R.Bowker, New York, 1978.

Heady, Katy. Literature and Censorship in Restoration Germany: Repression and Rhetoric. Rochester: Camden House, 2009.

Jackson, Holbrook, “The Fear of Books”, University of Illinois Press, 2001.

Jacobsens (ed.), “Index on Objectionable Literature”, Vol. 7, Jacobsens, Pretoria, South Africa, 1967.

Karolides, Nicholas J. and Burress, Lee (eds.), “Celebrating Censored Books,” pp. 120, Wisconsin Council of teachers of English, Racine, WI, 1985.

Karolides, Nicholas J.; Bald, Margaret; Sova, Dawn B; Wachsberger, Ken, “100 Banned Books: Censorship Histories of World Literature”

Kerby-Fulton, Kathryn. Books under Suspicion: Censorship and Tolerance of Revelatory Writing in Late Medieval England. South Bend: Notre Dame University Press, 2011.

Knuth, Rebecca, “Burning Books and Leveling Libraries: Extremist Violence and Cultural Destruction,” Praeger Publishers, 2006.

Lankford, Ronnie D. Book Banning (At Issue Series). Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press, 2007.

Llorens Castillo, Vicente, “Aspectos sociales de la literatura espanola (por) V.Llorens”, “Literatura y Sociedad”, Vol. 6, pp. 244, Castalia, Madrid, 1974.

London Writers and Scholars International, ed., “Index on Censorship”, LondonWriters and Scholars International, London, 1972.

Loth, David Goldsmith, “The Erotic in Literature”, pp. 256, J. Messner, NewYork, 1961.

McDonald, Peter D. The Literature Police: Apartheid Censorship and Its Cultural Consequences. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.

MacKinnon, C. Only Words. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1993.

Maclean, Ian. Scholarship, Commerce, Religion: The Learned Book in the Age of Confessions, 1560-1630. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2012.

McClellan, Marilyn. Madeleine L’Engle: Banned, Censored & Challenged (Authors of Censored Books). Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Publishers, 2008.

McKeon, Richard, Merton, Robert K. and Gellhorn, Walter, “The Freedom to Read:Perspective & Program”, pp. 110, R.R. Bowker for the National Book Committee, NewYork, 1957.

Milton, John. “Areopagitica.” The complete prose works of John Milton. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1953.

Mullin, Katherine. James Joyce, “Sexuality and Social Purity,” Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Paretsky, Sarah, “Writing in an Age of Silence,” New York: Verso, 2007.

Patterson, Annabel. Censorship and Interpretation: The Conditions of Writing and Reading in Early Modern England. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1984. dAnnabel Patterson explores the effects of censorship on both writing and reading in early modern England, drawing analogies and connections with France during the same period. Raz-Krakotzkin, Amnon. The Censor, the Editor, and the Text: The Catholic Church and the Shaping of the Jewish Canon in the Sixteenth Century. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007. In The Censor, the Editor, and the Text, Amnon Raz-Krakotzkin examines the impact of Catholic censorship on the publication and dissemination of Hebrew literature in the early modern period. Hebrew literature made the transition to print in Italian print houses, most of which were owned by Christians. These became lively meeting places for Christian scholars, rabbis, and the many converts from Judaism who were employed as editors and censors. Popper, William. The Censorship of Hebrew Books. New York: The Knickerbocker Press, 1899. This book was originally published prior to 1923, and represents a reproduction of an important historical work, maintaining the same format as the original work. While some publishers have opted to apply OCR (optical character recognition) technology to the process, we believe this leads to sub-optimal results (frequent typographical errors, strange characters and confusing formatting) and does not adequately preserve the historical character of the original artifact. We believe this work is culturally important in its original archival form. While we strive to adequately clean and digitally enhance the original work, there are occasionally instances where imperfections such as blurred or missing pages, poor pictures or errant marks may have been introduced due to either the quality of the original work or the scanning process itself. Despite these occasional imperfections, we have brought it back into print as part of our ongoing global book preservation commitment, providing customers with access to the best possible historical reprints. We appreciate your understanding of these occasional imperfections, and sincerely hope you enjoy seeing the book in a format as close as possible to that intended by the original publisher. Raz-Krakotzkin examines the principles and practices of ecclesiastical censorship that were established in the second half of the sixteenth century as a part of this process. The book examines the development of censorship as part of the institutionalization of new measures of control over literature in this period, suggesting that we view surveillance of Hebrew literature not only as a measure directed against the Jews but also as a part of the rise of Hebraist discourse and therefore as a means of integrating Jewish literature into the Christian canon.

On another level, The Censor, the Editor, and the Text explores the implications of censorship in relation to other agents that participated in the preparation of texts for publishing—authors, publishers, editors, and readers. The censorship imposed upon the Jews had a definite impact on Hebrew literature, but it hardly denied its reading, in fact confirming the right of the Jews to possess and use most of their literature. By bringing together two apparently unrelated issues—the role of censorship in the creation of print culture and the place of Jewish culture in the context of Christian society—Raz-Krakotzkin advances a new outlook on both, allowing each to be examined through the conceptual framework usually reserved for the other.

Roche, Daniel. “Censorship and the Publishing Industry.” In 

See Also: the UBC iSchool Student Journal
Vol 2., No. 1 (Spring 2016)

Annotated Bibliography of Challenged Material Policies in Libraries

Matthew Murray

Keywords: librarians, libraries, censorship


While few librarians or libraries want to deal with the possibility of patrons submitting challenges to material held in their collections, it is a reality of the position of libraries in our communities that this will happen. Because this is an area that can lead to poor representations of libraries in both the media and the general public consciousness, it is important for libraries to have fully developed policies to deal with all aspects of these challenges. This article looks at why a library needs these policies, and examines various resources concerning them.

Table of contents

1. Introduction



2. Resources

●    Frank, B. "Just a bunch of bigots" A case study in the acquisition of controversial material.
●    Manzo, K. Challenged.
●    McMenemy, D. Censorship or recklessness? Obligations and legality regarding controversial materials in libraries.
●    Preer, J. Prepare to Be Challenged!
●    Scales, P. Challenged:  A formal process provides teaching moments.
●    Tsompanakis, S. A discussion and suggestions on ethical barriers in librarianship: Information privacy, controversial materials, and personal beliefs.

Books and other documents..…………………………………………………………………………….………….………7
●    Cabeceiras, J. Responding to Request to Censor.
●    Guidance on the management of controversial material in public libraries.
●    Jones, R. Controversial Materials in Libraries.

Library Policies………………………………...……………………………………………………………………………………8
●    Beaufort County Library. Challenged Materials Policy.
●    Free Library of Philadelphia. Reevalution of Materials.
●    MacOdrum Library. Challenged Materials in the Library Policy.
●    Mead Public Library. Challenged Materials Policy.
●    Pikes Peak Library District. Challenged Materials Policy.
●    Ryerson University Library Archives. Challenged Material.
●    Seattle Public Library. Selection and Withdrawal of Library Materials.
●    Strathmore Library. Challenged Materials.
●    Vancouver Public Library. Collection Development Policy.
●    Wasco County Library Service District. Challenged Materials.
●    Western Kentucky University Libraries. Challenged Material Statement regarding Censorship/Intellectual Freedom.

●    The American Library Association Intellectual Freedom Committee. Dealing with Concerns about Library Resources.
●    The American Library Association Intellectual Freedom Committee. Sample Request for Reconsideration of Library Resources.
●    The Cooperative Children’s Book Center (CCBC). Suggested Steps to Take When Materials Are Challenged.
●    Cruz, R. Be Prepared with a Challenged Materials Policy.
●    Freedom to Read Week. Position Statement.
●    Lanier, G. Conducting a challenge hearing.
●    The Office for Intellectual Freedom of the American Library Association. Intellectual Freedom Manual.
●    The Office for Intellectual Freedom of the American Library Association. Strategies and Tips for Dealing with Challenges to Library Materials.
●    The Office for Intellectual Freedom of the American Library Association. Workbook for Selection Policy Writing.
●    Pateman, J. Management of controversial material in public libraries.
●    Wilkie, S. Guidance on the management of controversial material in public libraries.

Part 1: Introduction

Topic: Creating policies to deal with challenged materials in public libraries

This bibliography is an overview of resources that cover public library policies relating to challenged material and could be used by a library looking to create or improve upon their own policies. It will discuss the reasons why such policies are necessary, the areas that such a policy should cover, and the related policies that a library should have. Following the discussion are brief descriptions of resources that deal with the creation of challenged materials policies and why they may, or may not, be useful.


While few librarians or libraries want to deal with patrons submitting challenges to material held in their collections, it is a reality of the position of libraries in our communities that this will happen. Because this is an area that can lead to poor representations of libraries in both the media and the general public consciousness, it is important for libraries to have fully developed policies to deal with all aspects of these challenges. While some of these policies will deal directly with the process of receiving and dealing with challenges, others will deal with other aspects of the library, or of the policies themselves.

There are generally seven areas that a policy for challenged material should cover: who can submit a challenge, how they can submit a challenge, the format of challenges, what the library does when it receives a challenge, if/how appeals from patrons to library decisions will work, how the library should deal with media inquiries related to challenges, and policies regarding the policies themselves.

1.    The first area of policy to be addressed is who may submit a challenge. This can be important because, while the library may need to respond to the interests of the community, they must decide who that community is. Some policies state that those submitting a challenge must have read or watched the material they are challenging, or that the challenger must be a resident of the area where the library is located.

2.    The next area of policy is how a patron may submit a challenge to library material. Policies usually require a patron to complete a form stating who they are, what material they are challenging, and their reasons for challenging this material. While it is important to make these forms easily available to patrons, the first step of any challenge should be to try to resolve any problems a patron might have with library material before they even submit a written challenge. This can be done by talking to a patron who approaches a library employee with a challenge, and discussing why the library has this material based upon selection policies, whom the library is serving, and the process of material acquisition. During these discussions it is important for patrons to feel as though their opinions are important to the library, and that their concerns are taken seriously.

3.    If a patron decides that they still wish to submit a written complaint, the next area of policy concerns the creation of a challenge form. How these forms are written can affect how a patron feels concerning their challenge (and is discussed in Preers article, Prepare to Be Challenged!). For example, offering checkboxes concerning why they are challenging a specific material may make it easier to classify their concerns and create a response, but may also lead to them choosing more challenges than they initially intended on doing. Even the name or language of this form can have an effect on the relationship between the patron and the library and should be considered.

4.    The next area of policy regards what happens to a patron’s challenge once it has been submitted to the library. The library policy should state who the challenge goes to, and what will be done to address the challenge. Various libraries have created different types of policies with different numbers of levels. Some feature subcommittees assigned to evaluate the work from the very beginning, while others leave the initial evaluation up to a single librarian. All should state exactly what is being done in regards to the challenge, and how and on what levels a material is being evaluated.

5.    Many libraries allow for patrons to appeal the initial response from the library concerning their material challenge. A policy should include whether appeals are allowed, and what form they should take. They usually take the form of patrons bringing their concern to the library board, either in a private meeting, or in a public forum of some kind. In either case there should be policies in place to make sure that the patron is given a fair forum for discussing their challenge. These policies can include things such as speaker lists and time limits for public forums, or official responses not being immediately released following meetings. In any case, the patron should be aware of these policies before they enter into the meeting.

6.    Related to policies concerning meetings and public forums are those concerning media interaction. At times, media can become involved in a patron’s challenges to library material, and it is important for the library to be prepared. This means there should be policies in place concerning writing and sending press releases, who can talk to the media as a representative of the library, and what message the library should be trying to present to both the media and the public.

7.    The final area of policy concerning material challenges is that of policies about other policies. While this may seem fairly arcane at first, its importance becomes more obvious when examined more closely. While the creation of policies is important, these same policies must be kept up to date, and it is important for libraries to feature systems that allow for policies to be regularly reviewed and updated. This is especially vital with regard to laws that may affect what sort of material a library may be able to defend having in its collections, or even be legally allowed to own.

Additionally, it is important to have policies ensuring that policies regarding how patrons may make challenges of material are freely available to them. This ensures that patrons are aware of the process they must go through in order to submit a challenge, the methods which their response will be dealt with, and any further steps that can take if they are unsatisfied with the initial response. It can also be beneficial to feature timelines indicating to patrons how long each step will take, and when they can expect a response concerning their challenge. While it might seem as though not making this information easily accessible to the public will reduce the number of complaints, it can lead to patrons going through other, more public, avenues when attempting to challenge material.

Education is another area where policies about policies becomes important. A library can have a great policy concerning how to deal with patron challenges, but if the employees and board members of the library are unaware of these policies, then problems can arise when a challenge is raised. It is important to ensure that employees receive training to educate them on how to deal with patron challenges and the policies that exist in that area. Similarly, it is important for board members to be aware of what policies a library has in place concerning challenges to material, selection policies, and why a library has chosen to implement those policies.

Another area of policy concerning challenges to material are the policies that will be referred to when evaluating the material in question. These include selection policies, the library mandate, the mission statement of the library, documents concerning intellectual freedom, and so forth. The creation of these policies is not part of the creation of a challenge to material policy, and, while used in evaluating materials and writing responses to patron challenges, they should be created independently.

It may be beneficial to ensure that policies regarding the security of library materials mention that challenged material can be at a greater risk. Unfortunately, only one source I found mentioned this explicitly.

While most libraries will deal with a small number of challenges (any theoretical library that deals with thousands every year presumably has many other problems), it is still important for them to have the proper policies in place to deal with them. A library that deals poorly with a challenge to the material they have in their collection risks losing the support of the community they are supposed to serve. Thankfully, it seems that the vast majority of libraries already have these policies in place; however, it is still important for libraries to review them and ensure that their employees and board members are familiar with how they work.

Part 2: Resources


●    Frank, B. (1994). "Just a bunch of bigots" A case study in the acquisition of controversial material. Archival Issues, 19(1), 53-65.

Discusses specifically acquiring controversial material of historical value, and how, despite such material falling within collection policies, it can lead to controversies where a librarian’s professional credentials are not valued by the public. There is information on how to deal with the fallout of such controversies, including the idea that ignoring public debate is worse than doing nothing, why and how you should respond to public criticism, and information on dealing with journalists.

●    Manzo, K. (2006, September 27). Challenged. Education Week, 5-5.

Discusses why materials are challenged by patrons, why it is important to have well-structured policies that address patrons’ concerns, and how it is important to follow established policies. The article mentions the importance of having clearly defined steps to allow for challenges to be made and timelines for reacting to challenges.

●    McMenemy, D. (2009). Censorship or recklessness? Obligations and legality regarding controversial materials in libraries. Library Review, 58(2), 85-88. Retrieved February 7, 2015.

Provides a UK-based perspective on the types of material challenged by patrons, and the importance of providing access to such material. The importance of knowing the legal framework a library exists within is shown by discussing current and historical laws, as well as legal cases that have affected material in libraries.

●    Preer, J.(2014). Prepare to Be Challenged! Library Trends 62(4), 759-770. The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Uses an example of a complex and messy series of challenges from specific library patrons to discuss the importance of having well established policies for every step of the challenge process (including public forums and private meetings) and ensuring that staff and board members are well educated on said policies and the reasons behind them. Discusses how something seemingly minor, such as access to materials challenge forms, and the wording used on them, can affect how the entire process is perceived by the patron, leading to either better or worse understanding.

●    Scales, P. (2013). Challenged: A formal process provides teaching moments. School Library Journal, 59(7), 14.

Says that having a formal complaint process for challenged material is important, presents some scenarios and possible solutions to challenges.

●    Tsompanakis, S. (2014). A discussion and suggestions on ethical barriers in librarianship: Information privacy, controversial materials, and personal beliefs. Library Philosophy and Practice.

Says that policies surrounding challenges are important as they support the library in the face of complaints concerning material in their library, notes that these policies must be applied and followed properly if they are to be of any use, and suggests that there will always be some amount of bias from librarians no matter how fair the policies may be because “librarians are humans and not automatons.” Also states that it is important to remember that no matter how carefully created and followed, policies surrounding challenged material cannot make everybody happy.

Books and other documents

●    Cabeceiras, J. (1982). Responding to Request to Censor. In The multimedia library: Materials selection and use (2nd ed., pp. 278-285). New York: Academic Press.

Suggests that librarians should attempt to resolve challenges through discussions about library selection policies without the patron having to create a written complaint. It is the only source that gives the option to “remove only the objectionable parts of the material if feasible,” and suggests that, in response to challenges, a library should avoid publicity and keep a low profile. As this is from a much earlier era, it is probably more valuable for historical purposes than for creating current policies.

●    Guidance on the management of controversial material in public libraries. (2009). London: Museums, Libraries and Archives Council.

Features appendices of case studies featuring library policies on selection and censorship, and a section on handling complaints, explaining why libraries might make certain material available. Interestingly, states, “Censorship will only be exercised when required by the law,” which indicates that libraries in the UK work within a very different environment.

●    Jones, R. (2010, May 22). Controversial Materials in Libraries. Retrieved from February 7, 2015,

Offers several reasons why patrons may find material controversial, discusses why library collections include those types of material, and raises the question of whether libraries should have historically valuable material that may be offensive to some users. Also discusses several administrative issues that can happen due to patron challenges, and was the only source to mention that the security of challenged items may be at risk.

Library Policies

●    Beaufort County Library. (2009, September). Challenged Materials Policy. Retrieved February 7, 2015, from

Public Library. Beaufort, South Carolina. Five branches.

Gives steps for how patrons can submit challenges; how the library will deal with them, including the creation of committees to evaluate material (if necessary); and how patrons may appeal to the library board if unsatisfied with the initial decision. Mentions the importance of creating written reports and recommendations if challenges reach higher levels.

●    Free Library of Philadelphia. (n.d.). Reevalution of Materials. Retrieved February 7, 2015, from

Public Library, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Fifty-four branches.

Provides information for patrons on how to make formal requests to challenge material. Links to ALA Library Bill of Rights, ALA Freedom to Read policy, and Free Library of Philadelphia policies concerning material selection, collection policies, and age level guidance.

●    MacOdrum Library. (n.d.). Challenged Materials in the Library Policy. Retrieved February 7, 2015, from

Academic library. Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario. One branch.

Gives Canadian Library Association Statement on Intellectual Freedom, and provides brief overview of how complaints should be made and dealt with.

●    Mead Public Library. (n.d.). Challenged Materials Policy. Retrieved February 7, 2015, from

Public library. Sheboygan, Wisconsin. One branch.

States that, although the difference between constitutionally protected and unprotected expressions can at times be hard to discern, all attempts to regulate library material, whether from citizens or governments, must be looked at carefully. Provides information on the challenge process, including the requirement that those making complaints must have read, watched, or viewed the material in full, that they must be residents of the county where the library is located, and that titles will only be reviewed once every five years “unless substantial content changes have been made.”

●    Pikes Peak Library District. (n.d.). Challenged Materials Policy. Retrieved February 7, 2015, from

Public library. El Paso County, Colorado. Sixteen branches.

Provides information to patrons about why the library has made its selections, the procedures for requesting material to be reconsidered, and how the library will progress after the final decision is made to retain or remove the material.

●    Ryerson University Library Archives. (2012, April 19). Challenged Material. Retrieved February 7, 2015, from

Academic library. Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario. One branch.

Gives procedures for how challenges of material must be presented to the library, and the steps the library must go through in response. Includes how to create a subcommittee to discuss things with challengers, consult with experts, and give recommendations to the library council.

●    Seattle Public Library. (2002, January 22). Selection and Withdrawal of Library Materials. Retrieved February 7, 2015, from

Public library. Seattle, Washington. Twenty-seven branches.

Provides information on the objectives of the collection, the selection policy, policies regarding access to the collection, constitutional protection (including that any material that is found to not be constitutionally protected will be removed from the collection), the collection review procedure, and how the withdrawal of materials will be handled.

●    Strathmore Library. (n.d.). Challenged Materials. Retrieved February 7, 2015, from

Public library. Strathmore, Alberta. One branch.

States why a library might feature material an individual may not like, but also why they should respect others' right to access that material. Provides information about how to make a challenge, how the challenge will be dealt with, and links to the Canadian Library Association’s Statement of Intellectual Freedom.

●    Vancouver Public Library. (2008, September 24). Collection Development Policy. Retrieved February 7, 2015, from

Public library. Vancouver, British Columbia. Twenty-two branches.

Provides limited information on how a request for “Reconsideration of Library Materials” may be made, and states that the library will review any material that is challenged in this way.

●    Wasco County Library Service District. (n.d.). Challenged Materials. Retrieved February 7, 2015, from No longer online.

Public library. Wasco County, Oregon. Three branches.

States how complaints regarding material need to be made (including author, title, and page numbers of material objected to, and reason for objection), provides information on how patrons who are not satisfied with initial response from the library can present to the library board, and how the board will determine if the material meets the library’s criteria for inclusion. Also states that the “presence of a book or other material in the collection shall not constitute an approval or endorsement of the views contained in it.”

●    Western Kentucky University Libraries. (2014, February 26). Challenged Material Statement regarding Censorship/Intellectual Freedom. Retrieved February 7, 2015, from

Academic library. Bowling Green, Kentucky. Seven locations.

Provides information on how challenges to material are dealt with, how committees to deal with challenges will be created and operate, and how the committee’s job is to consider the value of the material in the context of the library collection as a whole, and not just the concerns of the challenger.

Professional Organizations and Other Websites

●    The American Library Association Intellectual Freedom Committee. (2000, November 17). Dealing with Concerns about Library Resources. Retrieved from

Discusses the importance of having a collection policy, a service policy, a clearly defined complaints process (including steps for staff to follow while dealing with a complaint), staff training in regards to book challenges, communication with outside support groups and individuals, and staying in touch with the media. Suggests that libraries should be aware of rights, laws, and local legislation.

●    The American Library Association Intellectual Freedom Committee. (1995, June 27). Sample Request for Reconsideration of Library Resources. Retrieved from

Gives an example of what a material challenge form can look like, and information that can be included.

●    The Cooperative Children’s Book Center (CCBC). (n.d.). Suggested Steps to Take When Materials Are Challenged. Retrieved February 7, 2015, from

States that every challenge will be different, and that there are a large number of different factors that can influence both the reasons for the challenge, and the way a library reacts. Provides suggested steps for dealing with challenges to material, including reviewing the complaint, reviewing selection policy, organizing discussions with staff, and gathering resources in order to explain why a resource is in the library.

●    Cruz, R. (2014, February 12). Be Prepared with a Challenged Materials Policy. Retrieved February 7, 2015, from

States the importance of working with a library’s board when creating a challenged materials policy, both to create a good policy but also to ensure that the board is aware of the policy, why it exists, and why material is selected for the library. Suggests that it is important for a library to have a specific library employee who is responsible for dealing with patron challenges, and for other employees to know who that person is.

●    Freedom to Read Week. (1997, February 5). Position Statement. Retrieved February 7, 2015, from

Provides information on how freedom of expression is a fundamental right of Canadians and that only the courts have the legal right to restrict access to reading material. Links to the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

●    Lanier, G. (n.d.). Conducting a challenge hearing. Retrieved February 7, 2015, from

Suggests that challenge hearings can be the weak link in library policy, stresses the importance of ensuring that board members are familiar with library policies regarding collections if they are required to be present at such an event, and provides some suggestions for guidelines (speaker lists, time limits, etc.) to ensure such meetings run smoothly. Discusses the importance of being transparent about hearings, meetings, and policies; the value in being in contact with people who will speak about the importance of large varieties of material being available in libraries; and how the library should be media savvy and prepare press releases concerning challenges and hearings.

●    The Office for Intellectual Freedom of the American Library Association. (n.d.). Intellectual Freedom Manual. Retrieved February 7, 2015, from

Provides an overview of intellectual freedom with regards to libraries, including the library bill of rights and legal rights. Provides material for creating collection development policies and guidelines to prepare and respond to challenges to material.

●    The Office for Intellectual Freedom of the American Library Association. (1999). Strategies and Tips for Dealing with Challenges to Library Materials. Retrieved from

Stresses the importance of giving staff training in how to deal with challenges to material and library policies. Provides tips for librarians, directors, and board members on how to deal with patrons and the media in regards to challenges, including reaching out to the community to let them know why the library has the policies it does, ensuring those policies are up to date and fit within legal frameworks, and the importance of both internal and external communication.

●    The Office for Intellectual Freedom of the American Library Association. (1999, October). Workbook for Selection Policy Writing. Retrieved from

Provides information on creating a selection policy for a library, including objections, responsibility, criteria, selection procedure, challenges, and controversial material. Features a full sample policy of “Procedures for Dealing with Challenged Materials.”

●    Pateman, J. (2013, March 13). Management of controversial material in public libraries. Retrieved February 7, 2015, from

Discusses a consultation regarding a document created by the UK Museums, Libraries and Archives Council about controversial material in libraries and how many libraries did not feel it adequately met their needs.

●    Wilkie, S. (2010, January 6). Guidance on the management of controversial material in public libraries. Retrieved February 7, 2015, from

States that libraries have a duty to provide comprehensive service to the public, but must still be accountable to their communities. Discusses the importance of a library having policies about their policies, so that they can keep their policies up to date, make sure they are publicly available, that their staff have received training regarding them, and so forth.

Matthew Murray is a 2015 graduate of UBC's School of Library, Archival, and Information Studies. He is interested in makerspaces, zines, comics, and gaming in libraries.

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